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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ONEBEACON INSURANCE GROUP, LTD. INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K


ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2011

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to

Commission file number 1-33128

ONEBEACON INSURANCE GROUP, LTD.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Bermuda
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  98-0503315
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

601 Carlson Parkway
Minnetonka, Minnesota

(Address of principal executive offices)

 


55305

(Zip Code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (952) 852-2431

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Shares, par value $0.01 per share   New York Stock Exchange

         Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

         Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes o    No ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months. Yes ý    No o

         Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer ý   Non-accelerated filer o
(Do not check if a
smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o

         Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

         The aggregate market value of voting shares (based on the closing price of Class A common shares listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the consideration received for those shares not listed on a national or regional exchange) held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2011, was $300,418,281.

         As of February 24, 2012, 23,313,719 Class A common shares, par value $0.01 per share, and 71,754,738 Class B common shares, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.

         DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

         Portions of the Registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), relating to the Registrant's Annual General Meeting of Members scheduled to be held May 23, 2012 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. With the exception of the portions of the Proxy Statement specifically incorporated herein by reference, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.

   


Table of Contents

 
   
  Page  

PART I

 

ITEM 1.

 

Business

    1  

 

Overview

    1  

 

Specialty Insurance Operations

    3  

 

Other Insurance Operations

    6  

 

Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations

    15  

 

Regulatory Matters

    18  

 

Ratings

    22  

 

Employees

    23  

 

Available Information

    23  

ITEM 1A.

 

Risk Factors

    24  

ITEM 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

    36  

ITEM 2.

 

Properties

    36  

ITEM 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

    36  

ITEM 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosure

    37  

Executive Officers of the Registrant and its Subsidiaries

    37  

PART II

 

ITEM 5.

 

Market for the Company's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    39  

ITEM 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

    41  

ITEM 7.

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    43  

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

    69  

 

Critical Accounting Estimates

    77  

 

Forward-Looking Statements

    99  

ITEM 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

    100  

ITEM 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    103  

ITEM 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    103  

ITEM 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

    103  

ITEM 9B.

 

Other Information

    104  

PART III

       

ITEM 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    104  

ITEM 11.

 

Executive Compensation

    105  

ITEM 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters

    105  

ITEM 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

    105  

ITEM 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

    105  

PART IV

       

ITEM 15.

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

    105  

CERTIFICATIONS

    C-1  

Table of Contents


PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

Overview

        OneBeacon Insurance Group, Ltd. (the Company or the Registrant), an exempted Bermuda limited liability company, through its subsidiaries (collectively, OneBeacon, we, us, or our) is a property and casualty insurance writer singularly focused on specialty lines. We offer a wide range of specialty products and services through independent agencies, regional and national brokers, wholesalers and managing general agencies. As a specialty company, we are guided by a focus on certain products and/or customer or industry groups where we believe our targeted approach and expertise deliver a competitive advantage. We believe specialization will result in superior returns as compared to a more "generalist" underwriting approach and that our knowledge regarding our targeted industries, classes and risk characteristics provides us with a competitive edge for our terms and conditions on individual accounts. Our products relate to professional liability, marine, collector cars and boats, energy, entertainment, sports and leisure, excess property, excess environmental, group accident, property and inland marine, public entities, technology and tuition refund.

        Our reportable segments are Specialty Insurance Operations, Other Insurance Operations and Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations. The Specialty Insurance Operations segment is comprised of twelve underwriting units that are aggregated into three major underwriting units for financial reporting—MGA Business, Specialty Industries and Specialty Products—representing an aggregation of businesses based on those that are distributed through managing general agencies (MGAs), those that are targeted to specific industries and those that offer targeted products. Our Other Insurance Operations segment includes the results of the non-specialty commercial lines business, to which we sold the renewal rights, and the traditional personal lines business, which we sold, in addition to other run-off business and certain purchase accounting adjustments relating to the OneBeacon Acquisition. Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations includes the investing and financing activities for OneBeacon on a consolidated basis, and certain other activities conducted through the Company and our intermediate subsidiaries.

        OneBeacon was acquired by White Mountains Insurance Group, Ltd. (White Mountains) from Aviva plc (Aviva) in 2001 (the OneBeacon Acquisition). White Mountains is a holding company whose businesses provide property and casualty insurance, reinsurance and certain other products. During the fourth quarter of 2006, White Mountains sold 27.6 million or 27.6% of our common shares in an initial public offering. Prior to the initial public offering, OneBeacon was a wholly-owned subsidiary of White Mountains. As of December 31, 2011, White Mountains owned 75.5% of our common shares.

        Our headquarters are located at 14 Wesley Street, 5th Floor, Hamilton HM 11, Bermuda. Our U.S. corporate headquarters are located at 601 Carlson Parkway, Minnetonka, Minnesota 55305 and our registered office is located at Clarendon House, 2 Church Street, Hamilton HM 11, Bermuda.

        Our principal operating subsidiaries are rated "A" (Excellent, the third highest of fifteen financial strength ratings) by A.M. Best Company, Inc. (A.M. Best), "A-" (Strong, the seventh highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings) by Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (Standard & Poor's), "A2" (Good, the sixth highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings) by Moody's Investors Service, Inc. (Moody's) and "A" (Strong, the sixth highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings) by Fitch Ratings (Fitch). We currently have a "Stable" outlook from each of A.M. Best, Standard & Poor's, Fitch and Moody's.

        In the year ended December 31, 2011, our net written premiums totaled $1.1 billion and we had total assets of approximately $5.8 billion and total OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity of $1.1 billion at December 31, 2011.

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Significant Transactions

        AutoOne.    On August 30, 2011, we entered into a definitive agreement (the AutoOne Purchase Agreement) to sell our AutoOne Insurance business (AutoOne) to Interboro Holdings, Inc. (Interboro) (the AutoOne Transaction). AutoOne offers products and services to assigned risk markets primarily in New York and New Jersey. AutoOne had been included within the Other Insurance Operations segment, however, as a result of entering into the AutoOne Purchase Agreement, AutoOne has been presented as discontinued operations in the statements of operations with the prior periods reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Pursuant to the terms of the AutoOne Purchase Agreement, at closing OneBeacon will transfer to Interboro all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of AutoOne Insurance Company (AOIC) and AutoOne Select Insurance Company (AOSIC), through which substantially all of the AutoOne business is written on a direct basis. At closing, OneBeacon will also transfer the assets, liabilities (including loss reserves and unearned premiums) and capital of the business as well as substantially all of the AutoOne infrastructure including systems and office space as well as certain staff. The AutoOne Transaction also includes the execution of a reinsurance agreement with certain subsidiaries of the Company pursuant to which OneBeacon will cede, on a 100% quota share basis, AutoOne business not directly written by AOIC and AOSIC. The AutoOne Transaction, which was subject to regulatory approvals, closed in February 2012.

Our Operating Principles

        We strive to operate within the spirit of four operating principles. These are:

        Underwriting Comes First.    An insurance enterprise must respect the fundamentals of insurance. There must be a realistic expectation of underwriting profit on all business written, and demonstrated fulfillment of that expectation over time, with focused attention to the loss ratio and to all the professional insurance disciplines of pricing, underwriting and claims management.

        Maintain a Disciplined Balance Sheet.    The first concern here is that insurance liabilities must always be fully recognized. Loss reserves and expense reserves must be solid before any other aspect of the business can be solid. Pricing, marketing and underwriting all depend on informed judgment of ultimate loss costs and that can be managed effectively only with a disciplined balance sheet.

        Invest for Total Return.    Historical insurance accounting tends to hide unrealized gains and losses in the investment portfolio and over-reward reported investment income (interest and dividends). Regardless of the accounting, we must invest for the best growth in after tax value over time. In addition to investing our bond portfolios for total after tax return, that will also mean prudent investment in a balanced portfolio consistent with leverage and insurance risk considerations.

        Think Like Owners.    Thinking like owners has a value all its own. There are stakeholders in a business enterprise and doing good work requires more than this quarter's profit. But thinking like an owner embraces all that without losing the touchstone of a capitalist enterprise.

Property and Casualty Insurance Overview

        Generally, property and casualty insurance companies write insurance policies in exchange for premiums paid by their customers (the insured). An insurance policy is a contract between the insurance company and the insured where the insurance company agrees to pay for losses suffered by the insured that are covered under the contract. Such contracts often are subject to subsequent legal interpretation by courts, legislative action and arbitration. Property insurance generally covers the financial consequences of accidental losses to the insured's property, such as a business' building, inventory and equipment or personal property. Casualty insurance (often referred to as liability insurance) generally covers the financial consequences of a legal liability of an individual or an organization resulting from negligent acts and omissions causing bodily injury and/or property damage

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to a third party. Claims on property coverage generally are reported and settled in a relatively short period of time, whereas those on casualty coverage can take years, even decades, to settle.

        We derive substantially all of our revenues from earned premiums, investment income and net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investment securities. Earned premiums represent premiums received from insureds, which are recognized as revenue over the period of time that insurance coverage is provided (i.e., ratably over the life of the policy). A significant period of time normally elapses between the receipt of insurance premiums and the payment of insurance claims. During this time, we invest the premiums, earn investment income and generate net realized and unrealized gains and losses on investment securities.

        Insurance companies incur a significant amount of their total expenses from policyholder losses, which are commonly referred to as claims. In settling policyholder losses, various loss adjustment expenses (LAE) are incurred such as insurance adjusters' fees and litigation expenses. In addition, insurance companies incur policy acquisition expenses, such as commissions paid to producers and premium taxes, and other expenses related to the underwriting process, including their employees' compensation and benefits. The key measure of relative underwriting performance for an insurance company is the combined ratio. An insurance company's combined ratio under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP) is calculated by adding the ratio of incurred loss and LAE to earned premiums (the loss and LAE ratio) and the ratio of policy acquisition and other underwriting expenses to earned premiums (the expense ratio). A combined ratio under 100% indicates that an insurance company is generating an underwriting profit. However, when considering investment income and investment gains or losses, insurance companies operating at a combined ratio of greater than 100% can be profitable.

Specialty Insurance Operations

        Our Specialty Insurance Operations is a collection of niche businesses that focus on solving the unique needs of particular customer or industry groups on a national scale. We provide distinct products and offer tailored coverages and services, managed by seasoned teams of market specialists. Some of these businesses maintain stand-alone operations and distribution channels targeting their specific customer groups. The majority of these businesses are focused on smaller property-casualty insurance segments where particular expertise and relationships with similarly focused distribution partners have resulted historically in strong operating results. These businesses maintain their competitive advantage through a deep knowledge of their respective customers and markets. We have added, and expect to continue to add, new businesses both organically and through acquisition, guided by our focus on profitable growth while prudently managing underwriting risk.

        Our Specialty Insurance Operations segment is comprised of twelve underwriting units that are aggregated into three major underwriting units for financial reporting: MGA Business, Specialty Industries and Specialty Products.

        Our MGA Business underwriting unit includes:

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        Our Specialty Industries underwriting unit includes:

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        Our Specialty Products underwriting unit includes:

        For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, our Specialty Insurance Operations net written premiums by underwriting unit were as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

MGA Business

  $ 288.4   $ 269.2   $ 256.7  

Specialty Industries

    376.9     317.6     292.3  

Specialty Products

    397.4     401.2     397.2  
               

Total Specialty Insurance Operations

  $ 1,062.7   $ 988.0   $ 946.2  
               

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Geographic Concentration

        Substantially all of our net written premiums are derived from business produced in the United States. Business from Specialty Insurance Operations was produced in the following states:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  

California

    13.9 %   13.4 %   12.8 %

New York

    9.3     8.8     9.0  

Texas

    6.8     6.7     7.0  

Florida

    5.0     5.6     5.5  

Massachusetts

    4.5     5.0     5.5  

Other(1)

    60.5     60.5     60.2  
               

Total

    100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %
               

(1)
No individual state was greater than 5% of net written premiums, except as noted above.

Other Insurance Operations

        Our Other Insurance Operations includes run-off business, which consists primarily of non-specialty commercial lines business, the renewal rights to which were sold in 2009 as described below, as well as national accounts, certain specialty programs and regional agency business transferred to Liberty Mutual Insurance Group (Liberty Mutual) effective in 2001. Additionally, our Other Insurance Operations included the traditional personal lines business sold in 2010 as described below and certain purchase accounting adjustments relating to the OneBeacon Acquisition.

        On December 3, 2009, we sold the renewal rights to our non-specialty commercial lines business to The Hanover Insurance Group (The Hanover). The transaction included small commercial accounts and the non-specialty portion of the middle-market business, beginning with January 1, 2010 effective dates (the Commercial Lines Transaction). We continue to manage claims from our non-specialty commercial lines policies written prior to the Commercial Lines Transaction. Through June 30, 2010, we also managed claims from business fronted by OneBeacon and reinsured to The Hanover. We continue to provide claims system access and first notice of loss service to The Hanover. The Hanover reimburses us for our expenses incurred to provide the claims administration services.

        On July 1, 2010, we completed the sale of our traditional personal lines business to Tower Group, Inc. (Tower) (the Personal Lines Transaction). The Personal Lines Transaction included two insurance companies through which the majority of the traditional personal lines business was written on a direct basis, two attorneys-in-fact managing the reciprocal insurance exchanges (reciprocals) that wrote the traditional personal lines business in New York and New Jersey, the surplus notes issued by the New York and New Jersey reciprocals and the remaining renewal rights to certain other traditional personal lines insurance policies. In addition, the Personal Lines Transaction included the execution of reinsurance agreements with certain subsidiaries of the Company pursuant to which we cede, on a 100% quota share basis, traditional personal lines business not directly written by companies included in the sale and assume, on a 100% quota share basis, certain specialty lines business written directly by York Insurance Company of Maine (York). We also entered into a Transition Services Agreement (TSA), pursuant to which we provide certain services to Tower during the three-year term of the TSA. Tower reimburses us for all of our expenses incurred to provide these services. Reimbursement for these services is netted against the expense incurred.

        Beginning in 2001, national accounts and certain specialty programs were discontinued. On November 1, 2001, we transferred our regional agency business, agents and operations in 42 states and

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the District of Columbia to Liberty Mutual pursuant to a renewal rights agreement (the Liberty Agreement). We continue to manage claims from the discontinued national accounts and specialty programs business as well as the claims related to the business that was subject to the Liberty Agreement (legacy run-off).

        For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, our net written premiums from Other Insurance Operations were as follows:

 
  Year ended
December 31,(1)
 
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Other Insurance Operations

  $ 0.2   $ 171.0   $ 871.6  

(1)
As a result of entering into the AutoOne Purchase Agreement, AutoOne has been presented as discontinued operations in the statements of operations for all periods presented.

Marketing and Distribution

        We offer our products through a network of independent agents, regional and national brokers and wholesalers. Overall, we have approximately 2,700 distribution relationships across the country. In recent years, we have expanded our distribution channels to include select MGAs, either through acquisitions or exclusive relationships. These MGAs focus on a particular customer group with tailored products and services, and related expertise.

        We protect the integrity of our franchise value by selectively appointing distribution partners that demonstrate business, industry knowledge and geographic profiles that align with our target markets and specialized capabilities. We believe in the added value provided by independent distribution partners as they conduct more complete assessments of their clients' needs, which result in more appropriate coverages and prudent risk management. We also believe that agencies and brokers will continue to be a significant force in overall industry premium production.

Underwriting and Pricing

        We believe there must be a realistic expectation of attaining an underwriting profit on all the business we write, as well as a demonstrated fulfillment of that expectation over time. Consistent with our "underwriting comes first" operating principle, adequate pricing is a critical component for achieving an underwriting profit. We underwrite our book with a disciplined approach towards pricing our insurance products and are willing to forgo a business opportunity if we believe it is not priced appropriately to the exposure.

        We actively monitor pricing activity and measure usage of tiers, credits, debits and limits. In addition, we regularly update base rates to achieve targeted returns on capital and attempt to shift writings away from lines and classes where pricing is inadequate. To the extent changes in premium rates, policy forms or other matters are subject to regulatory approval (see "Regulatory Matters—General" and "Risk Factors—Regulation may restrict our ability to operate"), we proactively monitor our pending regulatory filings to facilitate, to the extent possible, their prompt processing and approval. Lastly, we expend considerable effort to measure and verify exposures and insured values.

Competition

        Property and casualty insurance is highly competitive. Our businesses each compete against a different subset of companies. In general, we compete to varying degrees in one or more of our

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businesses with most of the large multi-line insurance companies, such as ACE Limited, Chartis Insurance, Chubb Group of Insurance Companies, CNA Insurance, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group, Travelers Insurance Group Holdings Inc. and Zurich Financial Services Ltd. We also compete with most of the specialty companies, such as Allied World Assurance Company, HCC Insurance Holdings, Inc., Ironshore Inc., Markel Corporation, RLI Corp. and W.R. Berkley Corporation. We also compete in certain of our businesses with various local and regional insurance companies.

        The more significant competitive factors for most insurance products we offer are price, product terms and conditions, agency and broker relationships, and claims service. Our underwriting principles and dedication to independent distribution partners are unlikely to make us the low-cost provider in most markets. While it is often difficult for insurance companies to differentiate their products, we believe that providing superior specialty products to satisfy well-defined market needs and relying on agents and brokers who value our targeted expertise, superior claims service, and disciplined underwriting, we establish our competitive advantage. The continued existence of carriers operating with lower cost structures places ongoing pressure on our pricing and terms and conditions, which may impact our ability to compete.

Claims Management

        Effective claims management is a critical factor in achieving satisfactory underwriting results. We maintain an experienced staff of appraisers, medical specialists, managers and field adjusters strategically located throughout our operating territories. We also maintain a special investigative unit designed to detect insurance fraud and abuse and support efforts by regulatory bodies and trade associations to curtail fraud.

        Following the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction, claims operations are now organized into ongoing claims and run-off claims, with specific claims resources supporting the respective operations. This approach allows us to better identify and manage claims handling costs. In addition, a shared claims service unit manages costs related to all claims staff and vendors. We have adopted a total claims cost management approach that gives equal importance to controlling claims handling expenses, legal expenses and claims payments, enabling us to lower the sum of the three. This approach requires the utilization of a considerable number of conventional metrics to monitor the effectiveness of various programs implemented to lower total loss costs. We utilize the metrics to guard against implementation of expense containment programs that will cost us more than we expect to save.

        Our claims department utilizes a claims workstation to record reserves, payments and adjuster activity and, with support from expert tools, assists each claim handler in identifying recovery potential, estimating property damage, evaluating claims and identifying fraud. Our commitment and performance in fighting insurance fraud has reduced claim costs and aided law enforcement investigations.

        In connection with the OneBeacon Acquisition, Aviva caused us to purchase a reinsurance contract with National Indemnity Company (NICO) to help protect against potential asbestos and environmental (A&E) claims relating to the pre-acquisition period prior to 2001 (the NICO Cover). See "Business—Catastrophe Management and Reinsurance Protection." NICO has retained a third-party administrator (TPA), Resolute New England (Resolute) to manage the claims processing for A&E claims reinsured under the NICO Cover. Our claims department personnel are consulted by NICO and Resolute on major claims. As with all TPAs, claims department personnel continually monitor Resolute to ensure its controls, processes and settlements are appropriate. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates—Asbestos and Environmental Reserves."

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Catastrophe Management and Reinsurance Protection

        In the normal course of our business, we purchase reinsurance from high-quality, highly rated, third-party reinsurers in order to minimize loss from large losses or catastrophic events.

        The timing and size of catastrophe losses are unpredictable and the level of losses experienced in any year could be material to our operating results and financial position. Examples of catastrophes include losses caused by earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes and other types of storms and terrorist acts. The extent of losses caused by catastrophes is a function of the amount and type of insured exposure in the area affected by the event as well as the severity of the event. We use models (primarily AIR Worldwide) to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a catastrophic event as well as potential losses under various scenarios. We use this model output in conjunction with other data to manage our exposure to catastrophe losses through individual risk selection and by limiting our concentration of insurance written in catastrophe-prone areas such as coastal regions. In addition, we impose wind deductibles on existing coastal windstorm exposures.

        We seek to further reduce our potential loss from catastrophe exposures through the purchase of catastrophe reinsurance. Effective May 1, 2011, we renewed our property catastrophe reinsurance program through April 30, 2012. The program provides coverage for our property business for losses resulting from natural catastrophes, as well as certain acts of terrorism. Under the program, the first $50.0 million of losses resulting from any single catastrophe are retained and the next $175.0 million of losses resulting from the catastrophe are reinsured in three layers, although we retain a co-participation of 26% of losses from $50.0 million to $100.0 million and 10% of losses from $100.0 million to $175.0 million. Losses from $175.0 million to $225.0 million are fully reinsured. Any loss above $225.0 million would be retained in full. In the event of a catastrophe, our property catastrophe reinsurance program is reinstated for the remainder of the original contract term by paying a reinstatement premium that is based on the percentage of coverage reinstated and the original property catastrophe coverage premium. We anticipate that the $225.0 million limit is sufficient to cover Northeast windstorm losses with a modeled 0.4%-0.5% probability of occurrence (1-in-250-year event to 1-in-200-year event). This $225.0 million limit was reduced from the $275.0 million limit that our previous catastrophe reinsurance program provided. This reduction was in response to lower exposure as our run-off business winds down.

        Our property catastrophe reinsurance program does not cover property losses resulting from any nuclear events or biological, chemical or radiological terrorist attacks or losses resulting from acts of terrorism as defined under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (the Terrorism Act), as amended, committed by an individual or individuals acting on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest, as well as domestic acts of terrorism. See "Business—Terrorism."

        We also purchase property-per-risk reinsurance coverage to reduce large loss volatility. The property-per-risk reinsurance program reinsures losses in excess of $10.0 million up to $100.0 million. Individual risk facultative reinsurance may be purchased above $100.0 million where we deem it appropriate. The property-per-risk treaty also provides one limit of reinsurance protection for losses in excess of $10.0 million up to $100.0 million on an individual risk basis for acts of foreign terrorism. However, any nuclear events, or biological, chemical or radiological terrorist attacks are not covered.

        We also maintain a casualty reinsurance program that provides protection for individual policies involving workers compensation, general liability, automobile liability, professional liability or umbrella liability in excess of $5.0 million up to $21.0 million ($20.0 million for healthcare professional liability). Casualty losses involving more than one insured are covered by a dedicated treaty up to $40.0 million in excess of a $10.0 million retention.

        In addition, we have reinsurance contracts with two reinsurance companies rated "A++" (Superior, the highest of fifteen financial strength ratings) by A.M. Best and "AA+" (Very Strong, the

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second highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings) by Standard & Poor's. One is the reinsurance cover with NICO which entitles us to recover up to $2.5 billion in ultimate loss and LAE incurred related primarily to A&E claims arising from business written prior to 1992 for asbestos claims and 1987 for environmental claims and certain other exposures. As of December 31, 2011, we have ceded estimated incurred losses of approximately $2.3 billion to the NICO Cover. Net losses paid totaled $1.4 billion as of December 31, 2011. The other contract is a reinsurance cover with General Reinsurance Corporation (GRC) for up to $570 million of additional losses on all claims arising from accident years 2000 and prior (the GRC Cover). Through December 31, 2011, we had ceded estimated incurred losses of $562 million to the GRC Cover. Pursuant to the GRC Cover, we are not entitled to recover losses to the full contract limit if such losses are reimbursed by GRC more quickly than anticipated at the time the contract was signed. We intend to seek reimbursement from GRC only for claims which result in payment patterns similar to those supporting our recoverables recorded pursuant to the GRC Cover. The economic cost of not submitting certain other eligible claims to GRC is primarily the investment spread between the rate credited by GRC and the rate achieved by us on our own investments. This cost, if any, is expected to be nominal. During the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, we collected $73.5 million and $61.3 million, respectively, under the GRC Cover.

        Reinsurance contracts do not relieve us of our obligations. Therefore, collectibility of balances due from reinsurers is critical to our financial strength. See Note 4—"Reinsurance" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Terrorism

        Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, we have sought to mitigate the risk associated with any future terrorist attacks by limiting the aggregate insured value of policies in geographic areas with exposure to losses from terrorist attacks. This is accomplished by either limiting the total insured values exposed, or, where applicable, through the use of terrorism exclusions.

        In December 2007, the U.S. government extended the Terrorism Act until December 31, 2014. The Terrorism Act, originally enacted in 2002, established a federal "back-stop" for commercial property and casualty losses, including workers compensation, resulting from acts of terrorism by or on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest. As extended, the law now also covers domestic acts of terrorism. The law limits the industry's aggregate liability by requiring the federal government to share 85% of certified losses once a company meets a specific retention or deductible as determined by its prior year's direct written premiums and limits the aggregate liability to be paid by the government and industry without further action by Congress at $100 billion. In exchange for this "back-stop," primary insurers are required to make coverage available to commercial insureds for losses from acts of terrorism as specified in the Terrorism Act. The following types of coverage are excluded from the program: commercial automobile, burglary and theft, surety, farmowners multi-peril and all professional liability coverage except directors and officers coverage.

        We estimate our individual retention level for commercial policies subject to the Terrorism Act to be approximately $100 million in 2012. The federal government will pay 85% of covered terrorism losses that exceed our or the industry's retention levels in 2012, up to a total of $100 billion.

        Our current property and casualty catastrophe reinsurance programs provide coverage for both "certified" and "non-certified" events as defined under the Terrorism Act provided such losses are not the result of a nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological terrorist attack, or for "certified" acts committed by an individual or individuals acting on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest. See "Business—Catastrophe Management and Reinsurance Protection."

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        We closely monitor and manage our concentration of risk by geographic area. Our guideline is to control our exposures so that our total maximum expected loss from a likely terrorism event within any half-mile radius in a metropolitan area or around a target risk will not exceed $200 million, or $300 million in all other areas before considering the Terrorism Act. Reports monitoring our terrorism exposures are generated quarterly, and the exposure of potential new business located in areas of existing concentration or that individually present significant exposure is evaluated during the underwriting process. As a result, we believe that we have taken appropriate actions to limit our exposure to losses from terrorist attacks and will continue to monitor our terrorism exposure in the future. Nonetheless, risks insured by us, including those covered by the Terrorism Act, remain exposed to terrorist attacks and the possibility remains that losses resulting from future terrorist attacks could prove to be material.

Loss and LAE Reserves

        We establish loss and LAE reserves that are estimates of amounts needed to pay claims and related expenses in the future for insured events that have already occurred. The process of estimating reserves involves a considerable degree of judgment by management and, as of any given date, is inherently uncertain. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates."

        The following tables summarize our loss and LAE reserve activities for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009:

Year ended December 31, 2011
  Specialty
Insurance
Operations
  Other Insurance
Operations(3)
  Consolidated  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Gross beginning balance

  $ 841.5   $ 2,454.0   $ 3,295.5  

Less beginning reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    (60.1 )   (1,833.1 )   (1,893.2 )
               

Net loss and LAE reserves

    781.4     620.9     1,402.3  

Loss and LAE incurred relating to:

                   

Current year losses

    578.0     5.8     583.8  

Prior year losses

    (29.6 )   26.7     (2.9 )
               

Total incurred loss and LAE from continuing operations

    548.4     32.5     580.9  

Loss and LAE paid relating to:

                   

Current year losses

    (216.9 )   (16.1 )   (233.0 )

Prior year losses

    (305.9 )   (175.9 )   (481.8 )
               

Total loss and LAE payments from continuing operations

    (522.8 )   (192.0 )   (714.8 )

Total incurred loss and LAE from discontinued operations

        56.9     56.9  

Total loss and LAE payments from discontinued operations

        (69.5 )   (69.5 )
               

Net loss and LAE reserves

    807.0     448.8     1,255.8  

Net loss and LAE reserves reclassified to held for sale(1)

        (64.7 )   (64.7 )
               

Net ending balance

    807.0     384.1     1,191.1  

Plus ending reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    61.6     2,105.9     2,167.5  
               

Gross ending balance

  $ 868.6   $ 2,490.0   $ 3,358.6  
               

(1)
At December 31, 2011, $64.7 million of net loss and LAE reserves related to the AutoOne Transaction were reclassified to held for sale.

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Year ended December 31, 2010
  Specialty
Insurance
Operations
  Other Insurance
Operations(3)
  Consolidated  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Gross beginning balance

  $ 704.7   $ 3,230.1   $ 3,934.8  

Less beginning reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    (46.4 )   (2,146.5 )   (2,192.9 )
               

Net loss and LAE reserves

    658.3     1,083.6     1,741.9  

Loss and LAE incurred relating to:

                   

Current year losses

    567.6     347.7     915.3  

Prior year losses

    (28.0 )   (29.1 )   (57.1 )
               

Total incurred loss and LAE from continuing operations

    539.6     318.6     858.2  

Loss and LAE paid relating to(2):

                   

Current year losses

    (201.1 )   (183.1 )   (384.2 )

Prior year losses

    (215.4 )   (348.7 )   (564.1 )
               

Total loss and LAE payments from continuing operations

    (416.5 )   (531.8 )   (948.3 )

Total incurred loss and LAE from discontinued operations

        72.0     72.0  

Total loss and LAE payments from discontinued operations

        (90.5 )   (90.5 )
               

Net loss and LAE reserves

    781.4     851.9     1,633.3  

Net loss and LAE reserves sold as part of the Personal Lines Transaction

        (231.0 )   (231.0 )
               

Net ending balance

    781.4     620.9     1,402.3  

Plus ending reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    60.1     1,833.1     1,893.2  
               

Gross ending balance

  $ 841.5   $ 2,454.0   $ 3,295.5  
               

(2)
Loss and LAE paid for the year ended December 31, 2010 includes $78.2 million of traditional personal lines loss reserves not directly written by York or Massachusetts Homeland Insurance Company ($2.5 million relating to current year losses and $75.7 million relating to prior year losses) ceded to Tower pursuant to the Personal Lines Transaction which closed in July 2010.

Year ended December 31, 2009
  Specialty
Insurance
Operations
  Other Insurance
Operations(3)
  Consolidated  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Gross beginning balance

  $ 629.9   $ 3,664.1   $ 4,294.0  

Less beginning reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    (52.4 )   (2,450.9 )   (2,503.3 )
               

Net loss and LAE reserves

    577.5     1,213.2     1,790.7  

Loss and LAE incurred relating to:

                   

Current year losses

    487.6     634.4     1,122.0  

Prior year losses

    (84.6 )   (32.1 )   (116.7 )
               

Total incurred loss and LAE from continuing operations

    403.0     602.3     1,005.3  

Accretion of fair value adjustment to net loss and LAE reserves

        5.4     5.4  

Loss and LAE paid relating to:

                   

Current year losses

    (169.8 )   (286.1 )   (455.9 )

Prior year losses

    (152.4 )   (445.0 )   (597.4 )
               

Total loss and LAE payments from continuing operations

    (322.2 )   (731.1 )   (1,053.3 )

Total incurred loss and LAE from discontinued operations

        116.6     116.6  

Total loss and LAE payments from discontinued operations

        (122.8 )   (122.8 )
               

Net ending balance

    658.3     1,083.6     1,741.9  

Plus ending reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses

    46.4     2,146.5     2,192.9  
               

Gross ending balance

  $ 704.7   $ 3,230.1   $ 3,934.8  
               

(3)
In connection with purchase accounting for the OneBeacon Acquisition, we were required to adjust to fair value our loss and LAE reserves and the related reinsurance recoverables by $646.9 million and $346.9 million, respectively, on our acquired balance sheet as of June 1, 2001. This net reduction to loss and LAE reserves of $300.0 million is being accreted through an income statement charge ratably with and over

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  Gross Loss
and LAE
Reserve
Balance
  Reinsurance
Recoverables
on Unpaid
Losses
  Net Loss and
LAE Reserve
Balance
 
 
  ($ in millions)
 

January 1, 2009

  $ (210.5 ) $ (205.1 ) $ (5.4 )

December 31, 2009

    (190.5 )   (190.5 )    

December 31, 2010

    (176.5 )   (176.5 )    

December 31, 2011

    (163.3 )   (163.3 )    

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  Loss and LAE(1)
Year ended December 31,
 
 
  2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

I. Liability for unpaid loss and LAE:

                                                                   

Gross balance

  $ 8,319.8   $ 7,407.9   $ 5,976.1   $ 5,160.9   $ 5,530.7   $ 4,926.0   $ 4,587.2   $ 4,402.4   $ 4,029.5   $ 3,394.7   $ 3,521.9  

Less reinsurance recoverable on unpaid loss and LAE

    (3,591.5 )   (3,534.4 )   (2,954.8 )   (2,670.9 )   (3,382.0 )   (3,079.7 )   (2,850.6 )   (2,708.4 )   (2,383.4 )   (2,069.7 )   (2,330.8 )
                                               

Net balance

  $ 4,728.3   $ 3,873.5   $ 3,021.3   $ 2,490.0   $ 2,148.7   $ 1,846.3   $ 1,736.6   $ 1,694.0   $ 1,646.1   $ 1,325.0   $ 1,191.1  

II. Cumulative amount of net liability paid through:

                                                                   

1 year later

    1,851.5     1,570.7     1,366.4     1,072.2     922.7     689.1     620.2     605.7     737.4     493.4        

2 years later

    3,039.2     2,705.2     2,187.4     1,724.9     1,430.4     1,098.7     990.0     1,008.8     1,043.8              

3 years later

    3,963.2     3,415.1     2,704.3     2,136.0     1,751.0     1,382.6     1,232.1     1,176.8                    

4 years later

    4,528.6     3,858.6     3,019.7     2,389.6     1,965.9     1,526.0     1,328.7                          

5 years later

    4,874.8     4,122.4     3,219.5     2,555.9     2,063.3     1,577.8                                

6 years later

    5,091.0     4,292.8     3,353.2     2,643.4     2,094.5                                      

7 years later

    5,232.3     4,413.2     3,387.4     2,639.4                                            

8 years later

    5,341.5     4,432.8     3,413.9                                                  

9 years later

    5,415.7     4,446.3                                                        

10 years later

    5,378.2                                                              

III. Net liability re-estimated as of:

                                                                   

1 year later

    4,780.8     4,030.7     3,128.6     2,596.3     2,176.5     1,815.2     1,663.8     1,577.3     1,588.9     1,322.1        

2 years later

    5,058.9     4,143.0     3,244.5     2,599.5     2,219.7     1,763.8     1,558.5     1,509.8     1,599.6              

3 years later

    5,143.3     4,249.9     3,257.9     2,694.2     2,182.7     1,688.2     1,513.1     1,517.2                    

4 years later

    5,221.4     4,268.6     3,386.0     2,676.0     2,133.4     1,642.6     1,547.5                          

5 years later

    5,242.8     4,401.3     3,385.5     2,669.4     2,123.7     1,703.2                                

6 years later

    5,371.2     4,405.2     3,380.0     2,663.6     2,175.3                                      

7 years later

    5,371.3     4,415.5     3,386.4     2,704.3                                            

8 years later

    5,384.5     4,423.5     3,429.7                                                  

9 years later

    5,391.2     4,462.4                                                        

10 years later

    5,426.7                                                              

IV. Cumulative net (deficiency)/redundancy(2)

  $ (698.4 ) $ (588.9 ) $ (408.4 ) $ (214.3 ) $ (26.6 ) $ 143.1   $ 189.1   $ 176.8   $ 46.5   $ 2.9        

Percent (deficient)/redundant

    (14.8 )%   (15.2 )%   (13.5 )%   (8.6 )%   (1.2 )%   7.8 %   10.9 %   10.4 %   2.8 %   0.2 %      

V. Reconciliation of net liability re-estimated as of the end of the latest re-estimation period (see III above):

                                                                   

Gross unpaid loss and LAE latest re-estimate

  $ 10,574.8   $ 9,556.5   $ 7,842.0   $ 6,749.5   $ 6,111.7   $ 5,302.2   $ 4,923.5   $ 4,769.4   $ 4,508.2   $ 3,911.2        

Reinsurance recoverable latest re-estimate

    (5,148.1 )   (5,094.1 )   (4,412.3 )   (4,045.2 )   (3,936.4 )   (3,599.0 )   (3,376.0 )   (3,252.2 ) $ (2,908.6 ) $ (2,589.1 )      
                                                 

Net unpaid loss and LAE latest re-estimate

  $ 5,426.7   $ 4,462.4   $ 3,429.7   $ 2,704.3   $ 2,175.3   $ 1,703.2   $ 1,547.5   $ 1,517.2   $ 1,599.6   $ 1,322.1        

VI. Cumulative gross deficiency(3)

  $ (2,255.0 ) $ (2,148.6 ) $ (1,865.9 ) $ (1,588.6 ) $ (581.0 ) $ (376.2 ) $ (336.3 ) $ (367.0 ) $ (478.7 ) $ (516.5 )      

Percent deficient

    (27.1 )%   (29.0 )%   (31.2 )%   (30.8 )%   (10.5 )%   (7.6 )%   (7.3 )%   (8.3 )%   (11.9 )%   (15.2 )%      

(1)
The 10-year table is reflective of activity related to our loss and LAE reserves from Specialty Insurance Operations and Other Insurance Operations and excludes the purchase accounting adjustments for the OneBeacon Acquisition or the effect of any reserve activity from the affiliate quota share agreements. Affiliate quota shares refer to two quota share reinsurance agreements we entered into with subsidiaries of White Mountains primarily for White Mountains' capital management purposes. These agreements were commuted in the fourth quarter of 2006 in connection with our initial public offering. The 10-year table also excludes AutoOne, which has been presented as discontinued operations in the statements of operations for all periods presented. For purposes of the 10-year table, loss and LAE reserves related to AutoOne have been excluded for all periods presented to conform to the current presentation of assets and liabilities associated with the AutoOne business which are presented as held for sale in the December 31, 2011 balance sheet.

(2)
Our December 31, 2010 net liability for unpaid loss and LAE for Specialty Insurance Operations and Other Insurance Operations re-estimated as of one year later resulted in a net redundancy of $2.9 million.

(3)
This table reflects the effects of the NICO Cover and the GRC Cover as further described below.

        The cumulative net redundancy/(deficiency) in the table above reflects reinsurance recoverables recorded under the NICO Cover and the GRC Cover. These covers apply to losses incurred in 2000 and prior years. As a result, they have the effect of significantly increasing our reinsurance

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recoverables. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates."

        In addition, during 2011, we completed a new study of our legacy A&E exposures. Based on the results of the study, we increased the point estimate of incurred losses ceded to NICO from $2.2 billion to $2.3 billion, an increase of $121.9 million, net of underlying reinsurance. Due to the NICO Cover, there was no impact to income or equity from the change in the estimate. Reasonable estimates of potential adverse scenarios continue to be within the $2.5 billion reinsurance cover issued by NICO. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates."

        The following table reconciles loss and LAE reserves for Specialty Insurance Operations and Other Insurance Operations, excluding the impact of purchase accounting adjustments, determined on a statutory basis to loss and LAE reserves determined in accordance with GAAP at December 31, as follows:

 
  December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Statutory reserves

  $ 2,604.6   $ 2,681.7   $ 3,285.4  

Reinsurance recoverable on unpaid losses(1)

    997.2     813.1     866.9  

AutoOne(2)

    (64.7 )   (77.3 )   (95.8 )

Other(3)

    (15.2 )   (22.8 )   (27.0 )
               

GAAP reserves

  $ 3,521.9   $ 3,394.7   $ 4,029.5  
               

(1)
Represents adjustments made to add back reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses included with the presentation of reserves under GAAP.

(2)
Represents loss and LAE reserves related to AutoOne which are presented as liabilities held for sale in the December 31, 2011 balance sheet and have been excluded from this table for the prior periods presented to conform to the current presentation.

(3)
Represents long-term workers compensation loss and LAE reserve discount in excess of statutorily defined discount.

Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations

        Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations primarily consists of investing and financing activities, as well as other assets and liabilities, and general and administrative expenses incurred at the holding company level.

Investing

Overview

        Invested assets are not allocated to Specialty Insurance Operations or Other Insurance Operations since we do not manage our assets by segment. Invested assets, net investment income and net realized and unrealized investment gains (losses) related to our Specialty Insurance Operations and Other Insurance segments are included in the Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations segment since these assets are available for payment of losses and expenses for all segments.

        Our traditional investment philosophy is to maximize our after tax risk-adjusted return while taking prudent levels of risk and maintaining a diversified portfolio. Under this approach, each dollar of after-tax investment income and realized and unrealized gains and losses is valued equally.

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        In response to significant declines in market levels, heightened market volatility and a lack of market liquidity during late 2008 and early 2009, we temporarily shifted our focus from total return to capital preservation. In particular, we significantly reduced the size of our equity portfolio and managed our fixed income portfolio to avoid realizing losses. During 2010 and 2011, we gradually shifted back from a focus on capital preservation to our traditional total return investment philosophy.

        Our investment portfolios are managed under agreements with White Mountains Advisors LLC (WM Advisors), a registered investment advisor that is owned by White Mountains, and Prospector Partners, LLC (Prospector), a registered investment advisor. See Note 15—"Related Party Disclosures" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Our investment portfolio mix as of December 31, 2011 consisted in large part of high quality, short duration fixed maturity investments and short-term investments, as well as equity investments which are comprised of common stock, convertible fixed maturity securities and other investments such as hedge funds and private equity funds. Our management believes that prudent levels of investments in common equity securities, convertible fixed maturity securities and other investments within our investment portfolio are likely to enhance long-term after tax total returns without significantly increasing the risk profile of the portfolio.

Fixed Income and Other Investments

        WM Advisors manages our fixed income portfolio, which includes both fixed maturity and short-term investments, and our other investments portfolio which primarily consists of hedge funds and private equity funds. WM Advisors' overall fixed maturity investment strategy is to purchase securities that are attractively priced in relation to their investment risks. WM Advisors generally manages the interest rate risk associated with holding fixed maturity investments by actively maintaining the average duration of the portfolio to achieve an adequate after tax total return without subjecting the portfolio to an unreasonable level of interest rate risk.

Common Equity Securities and Convertible Fixed Maturity Securities

        Prospector manages our common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity securities portfolios. Prospector's investment strategy is to maximize risk-adjusted absolute return through investments in a variety of equity, equity-related and convertible fixed maturity instruments. Prospector invests in the United States and other developed markets. Prospector's philosophy is to utilize a bottom-up, value investing approach. Preservation of capital is of the utmost importance.

Financing

        Debt and the related interest expense on debt also are not allocated to or managed by segment and are included in the Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations segment.

Senior Notes

        In May 2003, OneBeacon U.S. Holdings, Inc. (OBH) issued $700.0 million face value of senior unsecured debt (the Senior Notes) through a public offering, at an issue price of 99.7%. The Senior Notes bear an annual interest rate of 5.875%, payable semi-annually in arrears on May 15 and November 15, until maturity on May 15, 2013.

        On March 24, 2011, OBH commenced a cash tender offer for up to $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes at a price of $1,045 per $1,000 principal amount. Holders of Senior Notes who tendered on or before April 6, 2011 received an early tender payment of $30 for every $1,000 principal amount. Under the cash tender offer, OBH accepted and retired $150.0 million aggregate principal amount for $161.6 million, which resulted in a $12.0 million pre-tax loss, including transaction fees.

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        On May 3, 2010, OBH commenced a cash tender offer for up to $200.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes at a price of $1,027.50 per $1,000 principal amount. Holders of Senior Notes who tendered on or before May 14, 2010 received an early tender payment of $30 for every $1,000 principal amount. Under the cash tender offer, OBH accepted and retired $156.4 million aggregate principal amount, of which $155.2 million was tendered by the early tender deadline, for $165.4 million, which resulted in a $9.6 million pre-tax loss, including transaction fees.

        During 2010, OBH repurchased and retired $29.7 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $30.8 million, which resulted in a $1.2 million loss. During 2010, OneBeacon Insurance Company (OBIC) purchased $1.1 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $1.1 million. During 2009, OBH repurchased and retired $10.6 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $8.1 million, which resulted in a $2.5 million gain. During 2009, OBIC purchased $58.3 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $55.0 million, which resulted in a $2.9 million gain. As of December 31, 2011, $269.9 million face value of Senior Notes remained outstanding.

        White Mountains provides an irrevocable and unconditional guarantee as to the payment of principal and interest (the Guarantee) on the Senior Notes. In consideration of this Guarantee, we have agreed to pay White Mountains a specified fee in the amount of 25 basis points per annum on the outstanding principal amount of the Senior Notes. We have further agreed that if White Mountains' voting interest in us ceases to represent more than 50% of all our voting securities, we are obligated to seek to redeem, exchange or otherwise modify the Senior Notes in order to fully and permanently eliminate White Mountains' obligations under the Guarantee.

        See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financing".

Capital Lease

        In December 2011, OBIC sold the majority of its fixed assets and capitalized software to OneBeacon Services LLC (OB Services), another indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. The fixed assets and capitalized software were sold at a cost equal to book value with no gain or loss recorded on the sale. Subsequent to purchasing the fixed assets and capitalized software from OBIC, OB Services entered into lease financing arrangements with US Bancorp Equipment Finance, Inc. (US Bancorp) and Fifth Third Equipment Finance Company (Fifth Third) whereby OB Services sold its furniture and equipment and its capitalized software, respectively, to US Bancorp and Fifth Third. The assets were sold at a cost equal to net book value. OB Services then leased the assets back from US Bancorp for a lease term of five years and leased the capitalized software back from Fifth Third for a lease term of four years. In accordance with GAAP, OBIC recorded the sale of the assets with no gain or loss recognized while OB Services has recorded a capital lease obligation. See Note 16—"Commitments and Contingencies" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

Other Debt of Operating Subsidiaries

        In connection with the acquisition of Atlantic Specialty Insurance Company (ASIC) on March 31, 2004, we issued a $20.0 million ten-year note to the seller (the Atlantic Specialty Note). We were required to repay $2.0 million of principal on the Atlantic Specialty Note each year, commencing in January 2007. During the three months ended March 31, 2009, we repaid $2.0 million on the Atlantic Specialty Note. During the three months ended March 31, 2010, we repaid $14.0 million on the Atlantic Specialty Note, representing the outstanding principal on the note.

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Mortgage Note on Real Estate Owned

        In connection with our December 2005 purchase of land and an office building in Canton, Massachusetts, we entered into a $40.8 million, 18-year mortgage note which had a variable interest rate based upon the lender's 30-day LIBOR rate. Concurrent with entering into the mortgage note, we also entered into an interest rate swap to hedge our exposure to the variability in the interest rate on the mortgage note. Repayment on the mortgage note commenced in January 2009. During the three months ended March 31, 2009, we repaid $0.2 million of principal in accordance with the terms of the mortgage note. On May 7, 2009, we repaid $40.6 million, representing the outstanding principal on the mortgage note. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations".

Corporate Operations

        Corporate Operations consists of the activities of OneBeacon Insurance Group, Ltd. and our intermediate subsidiary holding companies which include OneBeacon U.S. Enterprises Holdings, Inc. (OBEH) and OBH, both U.S.-domiciled companies, as well as various intermediate holding companies domiciled in the United States, Gibraltar, Luxembourg and Bermuda.

Regulatory Matters

General

        Our insurance operations are subject to regulation and supervision in each of the jurisdictions where they are domiciled and licensed to conduct business. Generally, state regulatory authorities have broad supervisory and administrative powers over such matters as licenses, standards of solvency, premium rates, policy forms, investments, security deposits, methods of accounting, form and content of the consolidated financial statements, reserves for unpaid loss and LAE, reinsurance, minimum capital and surplus requirements, dividends and other distributions to shareholders, periodic examinations and annual and other report filings. In general, such regulation is for the protection of policyholders rather than shareholders.

State Accreditation and Monitoring

        Most states have laws that establish standards for current, as well as continued, state accreditation. In addition, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) has risk-based capital (RBC) standards for property and casualty companies, which are designed to determine minimum capital requirements and to raise the level of protection that statutory surplus provides for policyholder obligations. The RBC formula for property and casualty insurance companies measures three major areas of risk facing property and casualty insurers: underwriting, which encompasses the risk of adverse loss developments and inadequate pricing; declines in asset values arising from market and/or credit risk; and off-balance sheet risk arising from adverse experience from non-controlled assets, guarantees for affiliates or other contingent liabilities and excessive premium growth. Under laws adopted by individual states, insurers having less total adjusted capital than that required by the RBC calculation will be subject to varying degrees of regulatory action, depending on the level of capital inadequacy. Our current RBC ratios are satisfactory.

        The NAIC has a set of financial relationships or tests known as the Insurance Regulatory Information System to assist state regulators in monitoring the financial condition of insurance companies and identifying companies that require special attention or action by insurance regulatory authorities. Insurance companies generally submit data annually to the NAIC, which in turn analyzes the data using prescribed financial data ratios, each with defined "usual ranges." Generally, regulators will begin to investigate or monitor an insurance company if its ratios fall outside the usual ranges for four or more of the ratios. If an insurance company has insufficient capital, regulators may act to

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reduce the amount of insurance it can issue. We are not aware that any of our insurance companies are currently subject to regulatory investigation based on these ratios.

        State insurance laws require us to analyze the adequacy of our reserves annually. Our actuaries must submit an opinion that our reserves, when considered in light of the assets we hold with respect to those reserves, make adequate provision for our contractual obligations and related expenses.

        The NAIC's Annual Financial Reporting Model Regulation, or the Model Audit Rule (MAR), includes provisions that are similar to Sarbanes-Oxley requirements for public companies and requires certain insurance companies to appoint audit committees to oversee accounting and financial reporting processes as well as the audit of the financial statements of the insurer. Audit committees also are required to appoint independent auditors, among other things. The designated audit committee must receive reports regarding significant deficiencies, material weaknesses and solvency concerns at the insurance company level. Certain insurance companies, including OneBeacon, are also required to file an annual management report on internal control over financial reporting.

        Many states have laws and regulations that limit an insurer's ability to exit a market. For example, certain states limit a private passenger automobile insurer's ability to cancel or renew policies. Furthermore, certain states prohibit an insurer from withdrawing from one or more lines of insurance business in the state without the state regulator's approval. State regulators may refuse to approve withdrawal plans on the grounds that they could lead to market disruption.

Mandatory Shared Market Mechanisms

        As a condition of our license to do business in certain states, we are required to participate in mandatory shared market mechanisms. Each state dictates the types of insurance and the level of coverage that must be provided. The most common type of shared market mechanism in which we are required to participate is an assigned risk plan. Many states operate assigned risk plans. These plans require insurers licensed within the applicable state to accept the applications for insurance policies of customers who are unable to obtain insurance in the voluntary market. The total number of such policies an insurer is required to accept is based on its market share of voluntary business in the state. Underwriting results related to assigned risk plans are typically adverse. Accordingly, we may be required to underwrite policies with a higher risk of loss than we would otherwise accept.

        Reinsurance facilities are another type of shared market mechanism. Reinsurance facilities require an insurance company to accept all applications submitted by certain state designated agents. The reinsurance facility then allows the insurer to cede some of its business to the reinsurance facility so that the facility will reimburse the insurer for claims paid on ceded business. Typically, however, reinsurance facilities operate at a deficit, which is funded through assessments against the same insurers. As a result, we could be required to underwrite policies with a higher risk of loss than we would otherwise voluntarily accept.

Guaranty Associations

        The insurance laws of many states generally provide that property and casualty insurers doing business in those states belong to a statutory property and casualty guaranty association. The purpose of these guaranty associations is to protect policyholders by requiring that solvent property and casualty insurers pay certain insurance claims of insolvent insurers. These guaranty associations generally pay these claims by assessing solvent insurers proportionately based on the insurer's share of voluntary written premiums in the state. While most guaranty associations provide for recovery of assessments through rate increases, surcharges or premium tax credits, there is no assurance that insurers will ultimately recover these assessments. At December 31, 2011, our aggregate reserve for such assessments totaled $16.0 million.

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Pricing, Investment and Dividends

        Nearly all states have insurance laws requiring property and casualty insurance companies to file price schedules, policy or coverage forms, and other information with the state's regulatory authority. In most cases, such price schedules and/or policy forms must be approved prior to use. While pricing laws vary from state to state, their objectives are generally to ensure that prices are adequate, not excessive and not discriminatory.

        We are subject to state laws and regulations that require investment portfolio diversification and that limit the amount of investment in certain categories. Non-compliance may cause non-conforming investments to be non-admitted in measuring statutory surplus and, in some instances, may require divestiture. Our investment portfolio at December 31, 2011 complied with such laws and regulations in all material respects.

        One of the primary sources of cash inflows for us and certain of our intermediary holding companies is dividends received from our operating subsidiaries. Under the insurance laws of the jurisdictions under which our insurance subsidiaries are domiciled, an insurer is restricted with respect to the timing or the amount of dividends it may pay without prior approval by regulatory authorities. During the year ended December 31, 2011, our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries distributed $150.0 million of extraordinary dividends to OneBeacon Insurance Group LLC (OneBeacon LLC). Our first tier insurance subsidiaries have the ability to pay dividends of approximately $103 million to their parent in 2012 without the prior approval of regulatory authorities.

Holding Company Structure

        We are subject to regulation under certain state insurance holding company acts. These regulations contain reporting requirements relating to our capital structure, ownership, financial condition and general business operations. These regulations also contain special reporting and prior approval requirements with respect to certain transactions among affiliates. Since we are an insurance holding company, the domiciliary states of our insurance subsidiaries impose regulatory application and approval requirements on acquisitions of common shares which may be deemed to confer control over those subsidiaries, as that concept is defined under the applicable state laws. Acquisition of as little as 10% of our common shares may be deemed to confer control under the insurance laws of some jurisdictions, and the application process for approval can be extensive and time consuming.

Legislation

        The insurance industry is highly regulated at the state level. While the federal government does not directly regulate the insurance business, federal legislation and administrative policies affect the insurance industry. In addition, legislation has been introduced from time to time in recent years that, if enacted, could result in the federal government assuming a more direct role in the regulation of the insurance industry. For example, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the Dodd-Frank Act) created the Federal Insurance Office (FIO) within the Treasury Department, which is responsible for gathering information and monitoring the insurance industry to identify gaps in the regulation of insurers that could contribute to a systemic crisis in the insurance industry or U.S. financial system. In addition, the FIO can recommend changes to state insurance laws and regulations. The FIO is expected to issue its first report on modernizing and improving insurance regulation in 2012. We cannot predict whether the FIO will recommend any changes or whether states will adopt any such changes.

        In addition, the Terrorism Act established a federal "backstop" for commercial property and casualty losses, including workers compensation, resulting from acts of terrorism by or on behalf of any foreign person or foreign interest. As extended in December 2007, the law also covers domestic acts of terrorism. See "Business—Catastrophe Management and Reinsurance Protection" and "—Terrorism".

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We are actively complying with the requirements of the Terrorism Act in order to ensure our ability to be reimbursed by the federal government for any losses we may incur as a result of future terrorist acts.

        The NAIC's 2010 amendment to the Model Insurance Company Holding Company System Regulatory Act (the "Model Law") enhances the authority of state insurance regulators in the adopting state to regulate insurers as well as their affiliated entities, on an enterprise risk basis. The amendment to the Model Law requires the ultimate controlling person in an insurer's holding company structure to identify and report to state insurance regulators material risks within the structure that could pose enterprise risk to the insurer. The amendment to the Model Law will need to be adopted by individual state legislatures before they become binding on any given state. States may also deviate from these Model Law revisions as states differ in their approaches on several requirements. We cannot predict whether states will adopt the amendment to the Model Law, or if adopted, whether the amendment will differ from the Model Law.

Environmental

        Environmental cleanup of polluted waste sites is subject to both federal and state regulations. Superfund and comparable state statutes govern the cleanup and restoration of waste sites by potentially responsible parties (PRPs). These laws can impose liability for the entire cost of cleanup upon any PRP, regardless of fault. The insurance industry in general is involved in extensive litigation regarding coverage issues arising out of the cleanup of such sites by insured PRPs and as a result has disputed many such claims. From time to time, comprehensive Superfund reform proposals are introduced in Congress, but none has yet been enacted. At this time, it remains unclear as to whether Superfund reform legislation will be enacted or that any such legislation will provide for a fair, effective and cost-efficient system for settlement of Superfund related claims. The NICO Cover includes coverage for such exposures at our company, however, there can be no assurance that the coverage provided under the NICO Cover will ultimately prove to be adequate for our incurred environmental losses.

Bermuda Law

        We are an exempted company organized under the Companies Act 1981 of Bermuda (Companies Act). As a result, we will need to comply with the provisions of the Companies Act regulating the payment of dividends and making of distributions from contributed surplus. A company is prohibited from declaring or paying a dividend, or making a distribution out of contributed surplus, if there are reasonable grounds for believing that:

        Under our bye-laws, each common share is entitled to dividends if, and when, dividends are declared by our board of directors (the Board), subject to any preferred dividend rights of the holders of any preference shares. Issued share capital is the aggregate par value of the company's issued shares, and the share premium account is the aggregate amount paid for issued shares over and above their par value. Share premium accounts may be reduced in certain limited circumstances. In addition, the Companies Act regulates return of capital, reduction of capital and any purchase or redemption of shares by OneBeacon.

        Although we are incorporated in Bermuda, we have been designated as a non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes by the Bermuda Monetary Authority, or the BMA. Pursuant to our

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non-resident status, we may hold any currency other than Bermuda dollars and convert that currency into any other currency, other than Bermuda dollars, without restriction.

        Shares may be offered or sold in Bermuda only in compliance with the provisions of the Investment Business Act 2003 and the Exchange Control Act 1972, and related regulations of Bermuda which regulate the sale of securities in Bermuda. In addition, specific permission is required from the BMA pursuant to the provisions of the Exchange Control Act 1972 and related regulations, for all issuances and transfers of securities of Bermuda companies, other than in cases where the BMA has granted a general permission. The BMA in its policy dated June 1, 2005 provides that where any equity securities, including our common shares, of a Bermuda company are listed on an appointed stock exchange, general permission is given for the issue and subsequent transfer of any securities of a company from and/or to a non-resident, for as long as any equity securities of such company remain so listed. The New York Stock Exchange is deemed to be an appointed stock exchange under Bermuda law. Notwithstanding the above general permission, the BMA has granted us permission to, subject to our common shares being listed on an appointed stock exchange, (a) issue and transfer our shares, up to the amount of our authorized capital from time to time, to persons resident and non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes; (b) issue and transfer our options, warrants, depositary receipts, rights, and other securities; and (c) issue and transfer our loan notes and other debt instruments and options, warrants, receipts, rights over loan notes and other debt instruments to persons resident and non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes.

        Under Bermuda law, exempted companies are companies formed for the purpose of conducting business outside Bermuda from a principal place in Bermuda. As exempted companies, we may not, without the express authorization of the Bermuda legislature or under a license granted by the Bermuda Minister of Finance, participate in various specified business transactions, including:

        Under Bermuda law, non-Bermudians (other than spouses of Bermudians) may not engage in any gainful occupation in Bermuda without an appropriate governmental work permit. Work permits may be granted or extended by the Bermuda government upon showing that, after proper public advertisement in most cases, no Bermudian (or spouse of a Bermudian) is available who meets the minimum standard requirements for the advertised position. The Bermuda government's policy limits the duration of work permits to six years, with certain exemptions for key employees.

Ratings

        Insurance companies are evaluated by various rating agencies in order to measure each company's financial strength. Higher ratings generally indicate financial stability and a stronger ability to pay claims. We believe that strong ratings are an important factor in the marketing of insurance products and services to distribution partners and customers. These financial strength ratings do not refer to our ability to meet non-insurance obligations and are not a recommendation to purchase or discontinue any policy or contract issued by us or to buy, hold, or sell our securities.

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        The following table presents the financial strength ratings assigned to our principal insurance operating subsidiaries as of February 24, 2012.

 
  A.M. Best(1)   Standard & Poor's(2)   Moody's(3)   Fitch(4)

Rating

  "A" (Excellent)   "A-" (Strong)   "A2" (Good)   "A" (Strong)

Outlook

  Stable   Stable   Stable   Stable

(1)
"A" is the third highest of fifteen financial strength ratings.

(2)
"A-" is the seventh highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings.

(3)
"A2" is the sixth highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings.

(4)
"A" is the sixth highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings.

Employees

        As of December 31, 2011, we employed approximately 1,300 persons. We believe that we have satisfactory relations with our employees.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

        We are subject to the informational reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. In accordance therewith, we file reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). These documents are available free of charge at www.onebeacon.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. In addition, our Code of Business Conduct as well as the charters of our Board Committees are available free of charge at www.onebeacon.com.

        We will provide to any shareholder, upon request and without charge, copies of these documents (excluding any applicable exhibits unless specifically requested). Written or telephone requests should be directed to Investor Relations, OneBeacon Insurance Group, Ltd., 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA 02021, (877) 248-8765. Additionally, all such documents are physically available at our registered office at Clarendon House, 2 Church Street, Hamilton, HM 11 Bermuda.

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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

        The information contained in this report may contain "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. See "FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS" (page 99) for specific important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements. The Company's actual future results and trends may differ materially depending on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties discussed below.

Risks Relating to Our Business

         Our loss and loss adjustment expense reserves may be inadequate to cover our ultimate liability for losses and as a result our financial results could be adversely affected.

        We are required to maintain adequate reserves to cover our estimated ultimate liabilities for loss and LAE. Loss and LAE reserves are typically comprised of (1) case reserves for claims reported and (2) reserves for losses that have occurred but for which claims have not yet been reported, referred to as IBNR reserves, which include a provision for expected future development on case reserves. These reserves are estimates based on actuarial, claims and underwriting assessments of what we believe the settlement and administration of claims will cost based on facts and circumstances then known to us. Because of the uncertainties that surround estimating loss and LAE reserves, we cannot be certain that our reserves are adequate and actual claims and claim expenses paid might exceed our reserves due to the uncertainties that surround estimating loss and LAE reserves. For example, we have a large number of workers' compensation permanent disability claims. These claims involve medical payments that will be made far into the future and therefore the impact of medical inflation including increased utilization could have a material adverse impact on the ultimate amount of losses paid.

        We had established gross loss and LAE reserves of $3,358.6 million and $3,295.5 million as of December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, we recorded favorable loss reserve development of $2.9 million, $57.1 million and $116.7 million, respectively, net of reinsurance, related to the re-estimation of previously established reserves.

        With the sales of personal lines, commercial lines and AutoOne, our reserve volatility will be more heavily influenced by less frequent, larger claims. During 2011, we had some adverse development in long-tailed businesses. With the change in our mix of business, the average duration of the reserves will gradually increase. A longer average claim life will make our reserves more sensitive to inflation. We have modeled the impact of future inflation on our reserve portfolio, and we estimate that our current reserves would be sufficient, if released, to cover adverse development to the 99th percentile of all inflation scenarios. Our principal risk management tools for reserve volatility are to 1) maintain a conservative provision for the loss and loss expense liabilities, 2) test reserve adequacy on a quarterly basis, and 3) purchase excess of loss reinsurance annually to limit potential adverse development on individual claims to our retentions.

        If in the future we determine that our reserves are insufficient to cover our actual loss and LAE, we would have to strengthen our reserves, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

        For additional information relating to loss and LAE reserve requirements, see "Regulatory Matters." For further discussion of our loss and LAE reserves, including our A&E reserves, see "Business—Loss and LAE Reserves" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Estimates."

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         Exposure to asbestos or environmental claims could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        We have exposure to A&E claims which may be difficult to estimate. To help protect against potential A&E claims relating to the period prior to 2001, we have a reinsurance contract from NICO, rated "A++" (Superior, the highest of fifteen financial strength ratings) by A.M. Best and "AA+" (Very Strong, the second highest of twenty-one financial strength ratings) by Standard & Poor's. We refer to this reinsurance contract as the NICO Cover. Under the NICO Cover, we are entitled to recover up to $2.5 billion from NICO for (1) all asbestos claims arising from business written by us in 1992 and prior, (2) all environmental claims arising from business written by us in 1987 and prior, and (3) certain other latent exposures.

        In September 2011, we completed a study of our A&E exposures based on experience through 2010. Reasonable estimates of potential adverse scenarios continue to be within the $2.5 billion reinsurance cover issued by NICO. Based on the study, we increased the point estimate of incurred losses ceded to NICO, net of underlying reinsurance, by $121.9 million to $2.3 billion. As of December 31, 2011, we have ceded estimated incurred losses of approximately $2.3 billion to the NICO Cover, leaving remaining protection under the NICO Cover of $198.3 million. Net losses paid totaled $1.4 billion as of December 31, 2011. Due to exclusions in policy language and changes in coverages provided, we do not believe that we have significant exposure to asbestos claims arising from business we wrote after 1992 or to environmental claims arising from business we wrote after 1987.

        As of December 31, 2011, we had established gross loss and LAE reserves for asbestos claims of $1,074.3 million. Approximately 99% of these loss and LAE reserves are covered under reinsurance arrangements. Our net loss and LAE reserves for asbestos claims after giving effect to third-party reinsurance other than the NICO Cover were $681.2 million at December 31, 2011. Our net loss and LAE reserves for asbestos claims after giving effect to both third-party reinsurance and the NICO Cover were $2.2 million at December 31, 2011.

        As of December 31, 2011, we had established gross loss and LAE reserves for environmental claims of $279.8 million. Approximately 97% of these loss and LAE reserves are covered under reinsurance arrangements. Our net loss and LAE reserves for environmental claims after giving effect to third-party reinsurance other than the NICO Cover were $151.6 million at December 31, 2011. Our net loss and LAE reserves for environmental claims after giving effect to both third-party reinsurance and the NICO Cover were $9.0 million as of December 31, 2011.

        Estimating our exposure to A&E claims is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and could exceed the coverage available under our reinsurance arrangements or our net loss and LAE reserves. Policyholders continue to assert new theories of recovery. From time to time, there is proposed state and federal legislation regarding A&E liability, which would also affect our exposure. Although the number of our A&E related claims has been decreasing since 2004, there is no assurance that these or other factors may not impact our liability and increase our claims. If we do not have adequate reinsurance protection and if we have not established adequate loss and LAE reserves to cover future claims, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

         We may not be able to successfully alleviate risk through reinsurance arrangements. Additionally, we may be unable to collect all amounts due from our reinsurers under our existing reinsurance arrangements.

        We attempt to limit our risk of loss through reinsurance arrangements. The availability and cost of reinsurance protection is subject to market conditions, which are outside of our control. In addition, the coverage under our reinsurance contracts may be inadequate to cover our future liabilities. As a result, we may not be able to successfully alleviate risk through these arrangements, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

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        We are not relieved of our obligations to our policyholders by purchasing reinsurance. We may be unable to recover amounts due under our reinsurance arrangements if our reinsurers choose to withhold payment due to a dispute or other factors beyond our control. We are also subject to credit risk with respect to our reinsurance in the event that a reinsurer is unable to pay amounts owed to us as a result of a deterioration in its financial condition. A number of reinsurers experienced such deterioration in the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attacks and the active 2005 hurricane season. To mitigate this risk, we annually review and periodically monitor our reinsurers' financial condition and require at the time of purchase of reinsurance that each of our reinsurers holds a rating of at least "A-" (Excellent, the fourth highest of fifteen financial strength ratings) by A.M. Best or the equivalent. While we believe that our reinsurers' financial condition is strong, it is possible that one or more of our reinsurers will be significantly adversely affected by future significant loss events, causing them to be unable to pay amounts owed to us.

        Many of our reinsurers are non-U.S. companies and as such are subject to foreign regulations, including Solvency II which will be effective January 1, 2013 and will regulate insurance firms that operate in the European Union. Solvency II was enacted to reduce the risk that insurers would not be able to pay claims to policyholders as well as promote financial stability through minimum capital and other requirements for the governance, risk management and supervision of insurers. We cannot predict what regulations will be adopted to implement Solvency II nor the impact of such regulation upon our non-U.S. reinsurers, which could affect our ability to obtain reinsurance on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

         Unpredictable catastrophic events could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        We write insurance policies that cover catastrophic events. Our policies cover unpredictable natural and other disasters, such as hurricanes, windstorms, earthquakes, floods, fires, explosions and severe winter weather. Recent event frequency, particularly severe storms, has been high relative to historic standards. Our exposure to catastrophic windstorms is the largest natural catastrophe risk to our business, although our probable maximum loss, or PML, estimates decreased significantly during 2010 and 2011 as a result of the Commercial Lines Transaction and Personal Lines Transaction. In particular, while windstorm damage remains the largest natural catastrophe exposure for us, our PML balance is more evenly distributed across the United States as a result of the Commercial Lines Transaction and Personal Lines Transaction and the resulting shift in our business by geographic region. We continue to have some exposure to windstorm damage in the United States Atlantic Coast (i.e., Massachusetts to Florida) and the United States Gulf Coast region (i.e., Florida to Texas). We also continue to have exposure to a major earthquake in California, although our PML estimates have declined as a result of the Commercial Lines Transaction. In addition, we are exposed to losses from terrorist attacks, such as attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001.

        The extent of losses from a catastrophe is a function of both the total amount of insured exposure in the area affected by the event and the severity of the event. Increases in the value and concentrations of insured property, the effects of inflation and changes in cyclical weather patterns may increase the severity of claims from catastrophic events in the future. Claims from catastrophic events could reduce our earnings and cause substantial volatility in our results of operations for any fiscal quarter or year and adversely affect our financial condition. Our ability to write new insurance policies could also be impacted as a result of corresponding reductions in our surplus levels.

        We manage our exposure to catastrophic losses by limiting the aggregate insured value of policies in geographic areas with exposure to catastrophic events, by estimating our PML for many different catastrophe scenarios and by buying reinsurance. To manage and analyze aggregate insured values and PML, we use a variety of tools, including catastrophe modeling software packages. Our estimates of PML are dependent on many variables, including assumptions about the demand surge and storm surge, loss adjustment expenses, insurance-to-value and storm intensity in the aftermath of

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weather-related catastrophes utilized to model the event and the relationship of the actual event to the modeled event. Accordingly, if our assumptions about these variables are incorrect, the losses we might incur from an actual catastrophe could be materially higher than our expectation of losses generated from modeled catastrophe scenarios, and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. We also purchase reinsurance to hedge our risk of loss from catastrophes.

        In December 2009, we completed the Commercial Lines Transaction. In July 2010, we completed the Personal Lines Transaction. The Commercial Lines Transaction reduced our exposure to catastrophic events and our PML during 2010 and 2011 as policy terms expired, while the Personal Lines Transaction generally reduced our exposure immediately upon closing. In particular, at each of December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, we estimated our 1-in-250 year loss from hurricanes to be approximately $152 million, $222 million and $750 million, respectively, on a gross basis.

         Future insurance and reinsurance coverage for terrorist acts is uncertain, and we may in the future have substantial exposure to such acts.

        We are unable to predict the extent to which our future insurance contracts will cover terrorist acts. We also are unsure how terrorist acts will be defined in our future contracts. The Terrorism Act, which has been modified and extended through the end of 2014, requires primary commercial insurers to make terrorism coverage available and provides Federal protection for certain losses above both individual company retention and industry retention levels. While we know of no reason that the Terrorism Act will not be extended for an additional period of time, there is no assurance that it will be extended or of the terms of any such extension. The following types of coverage are excluded from the program: commercial automobile, burglary and theft, surety, farmowners multi-peril and all professional liability coverages except directors and officers coverage. We manage our exposure to losses resulting from acts of terrorism by limiting our concentration of risk by geographic area. We estimate our PML for different scenarios using computer models in conjunction with other data. We also manage our terrorism exposures by purchasing reinsurance. Our current property and casualty catastrophe reinsurance programs provide coverage for us for "non-certified" events as defined under the Terrorism Act, provided such losses are not the result of a nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological terrorist attack. Nonetheless, risks insured by us, including those covered by the Terrorism Act, remain exposed to terrorist attacks and the possibility remains that losses resulting from future terrorist attacks could prove to be material to our results of operations and financial condition.

         Our investment portfolio may suffer reduced returns or losses which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Adverse changes in interest rates, equity markets, debt markets or market volatility could result in significant losses to the fair value of our investment portfolio.

        Our investment portfolio consists of fixed maturity securities, convertible fixed maturity securities, short-term investments, common equity securities and other investments such as hedge funds and private equity funds. We invest to maximize after tax total risk-adjusted return over the long term subject to our investment guidelines and various regulatory restrictions. However, investing entails substantial risks. We cannot assure you that we will achieve our investment objectives, and our investment performance may vary substantially over time. Investment returns are an important part of our strategy to grow book value, and fluctuations in the fixed income or equity markets could impair our results of operations and financial condition. Investments generate both income, consisting primarily of interest earned on fixed maturity investments and dividends earned on equity securities, and realized and unrealized investment gains or losses.

        Both the investment income we generate and the fair market value of our investment portfolio are affected by general economic and market conditions, including fluctuations in interest rates, debt market levels, equity market levels and market volatility. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies, domestic and international economic and political

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conditions and other factors beyond our control. Although we attempt to manage the risks of changes in interest rates, we may not be able to do so. In particular, a significant increase in interest rates could result in significant losses in the fair value of our investment portfolio, and consequently, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. We are exposed to changes in equity markets. We are also exposed to changes in the volatility levels of various investment markets. The underlying conditions are outside of our control and could adversely affect the value of our investments and our results of operations and financial condition.

        We are highly dependent on WM Advisors, which is owned by White Mountains, and Prospector, in connection with the management of our investment portfolio. WM Advisors supervises and directs the fixed income and other investments portion of our investment portfolio, and Prospector supervises and directs the publicly-traded common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity securities portion of our investment portfolio. We entered into a new investment management agreement with WM Advisors effective October 1, 2010 which replaced the November 2006 agreement and remains in full force and effect until terminated by either party upon sixty (60) days' prior written notice. We entered into a new investment management agreement with Prospector effective March 1, 2011 which replaced the 2006 agreement with substantially the same terms and conditions as the 2006 agreement, including an initial fixed term of three years which may be extended for an additional two year term. If we lose our investment relationship with either of WM Advisors or Prospector, we may not be able to secure an investment advisor or advisors who will produce returns on our investments similar to these produced by WM Advisors and Prospector in the past, or any positive returns at all.

         We may not maintain favorable financial strength or creditworthiness ratings, which could adversely affect our ability to conduct business.

        Third-party rating agencies assess and rate the financial strength, including claims-paying ability, of insurers and reinsurers. These ratings are based upon criteria established by the rating agencies and are subject to revision at any time at the sole discretion of the agencies. Some of the criteria relate to general economic conditions and other circumstances outside the rated company's control. These financial strength ratings are used by policyholders, agents and brokers as an important means of assessing the suitability of insurers as business counterparties and have become an increasingly important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. These financial strength ratings do not refer to our ability to meet non-insurance obligations and are not a recommendation to purchase or discontinue any policy or contract issued by us or to buy, hold or sell our securities. General creditworthiness ratings are used by existing or potential investors to assess the likelihood of repayment on a particular debt issue. We believe that strong creditworthiness ratings are important factors that provide better financial flexibility when issuing new debt or restructuring existing debt.

        Rating agencies periodically evaluate us to confirm that we continue to meet the criteria of the ratings previously assigned to us. Our current financial strength ratings are "A" (Excellent, third highest of fifteen ratings) by A. M. Best, "A-" (Strong, seventh highest of twenty-one ratings) by Standard & Poor's, "A2" (Good, sixth highest of twenty-one ratings) by Moody's and "A" (Strong, sixth highest of twenty-one ratings) by Fitch. We currently have a "Stable" outlook from each of A.M. Best, Standard & Poor's, Fitch and Moody's. A downgrade, withdrawal or negative watch/outlook of our financial strength ratings could severely limit or prevent our insurance subsidiaries from writing new insurance policies or renewing existing insurance policies, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. A downgrade, withdrawal or negative watch/outlook of White Mountains' or our creditworthiness ratings could limit our ability to raise new debt or make new debt more costly and/or have more restrictive conditions.

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         Our debt and related service obligations could adversely affect our business.

        As of December 31, 2011, we had $269.9 million face value of indebtedness. During 2011, we decreased our indebtedness by $150.0 million through a tender offer in April 2011. See "Business—Investing, Financing and Other Corporate Operations". Our ability to meet our debt and related service obligations, as well as our ability to pay a dividend on our common shares, will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. In addition, White Mountains is subject to restrictive financial covenants contained in its revolving credit facility that require White Mountains to pay the principal and interest on its debt and maintain specified financial ratios and to satisfy financial condition tests. A breach of these covenants could result in an event of default under White Mountains' revolving credit facility which would allow lenders to declare all amounts owed under the revolving credit facility to be immediately due and payable. A failure to pay principal and interest on White Mountains' revolving credit facility could trigger cross acceleration provisions contained in the indenture of our Senior Notes. In addition, if we or White Mountains defaults under a credit agreement, mortgage or similar debt agreement with a principal amount greater than $25 million, and such default results in the acceleration of such debt, there is a default under the Senior Notes which would permit the holders of 25% or more of the Senior Notes to declare an event of default under the indenture documents resulting in a required repayment of the Senior Notes. We cannot be certain that our earnings will be sufficient to allow us to pay the principal and interest on our debt and meet our other obligations, or to repay any accelerated indebtedness as a result of the trigger of the cross acceleration provisions in the indentures of the Senior Notes. If we do not have enough cash, we may be required to refinance all or part of our existing debt, sell assets, borrow more cash or sell equity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to accomplish any of these alternatives on terms acceptable to us, if at all. See the risk factor concerning our Senior Notes, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financing" and Note 15—"Related Party Disclosures" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

        We could incur additional indebtedness and issue preferred stock in the future. To the extent new debt, preferred stock and other obligations are added to our and our subsidiaries' current debt levels, the risks described in the previous paragraph would increase.

         We are a holding company with no direct operations, and our insurance subsidiaries' ability to pay dividends to us is restricted by law.

        As a holding company with no direct operations, we rely on net investment income and dividends and other permitted payments from our subsidiaries to pay our expenses. Our subsidiaries may not be able to generate cash flow sufficient to pay a dividend or distribute funds to us. In addition, under the insurance laws of the jurisdictions in which our insurance subsidiaries are domiciled, an insurer is restricted with respect to the timing or the amount of dividends it may pay without the prior approval of regulatory authorities. Generally, our regulated operating subsidiaries have the ability to pay dividends during any 12-month period without the prior approval of regulatory authorities in an amount set by formula based on the greater of prior year statutory net income or 10% of prior year statutory surplus, subject to the availability of unassigned funds. Our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries have the ability to pay approximately $103 million of dividends during 2012, subject to the availability of unassigned funds. At December 31, 2011, our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries had $0.7 billion of unassigned funds available for dividend distribution. Management believes that our cash balances, cash flows from operations and cash flows from investments are adequate to meet expected cash requirements for the foreseeable future on both a holding company and operating subsidiary level. However, if our insurance subsidiaries cannot pay dividends in future periods, we may have difficulty servicing our debt, paying dividends on our common shares and meeting our holding company expenses. For additional information relating to insurance regulations governing our operations, see "Regulatory Matters."

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         The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive and cyclical, and we may not be able to compete effectively in the future.

        The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive and has historically been cyclical, experiencing periods of severe price competition and less selective underwriting standards (soft markets) followed by periods of relatively high prices and more selective underwriting standards (hard markets). Our businesses each compete against a different subset of companies. In general terms, we compete to varying degrees in one or more of our businesses with most of the large multi-line insurance companies, such as ACE Limited, Chartis Insurance, Chubb Group of Insurance Companies, CNA Insurance, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group, Travelers Insurance Group Holdings Inc. and Zurich Financial Services Ltd. We also compete with most of the specialty companies, such as Allied World Assurance Company, HCC Insurance Holdings, Inc., Ironshore Inc., Markel Corporation, RLI Corp. and W.R. Berkley Corporation. Lastly, we compete in certain of our businesses with various local and regional insurance companies. Many of our competitors have greater resources than we do and have established long-term and continuing business relationships throughout the insurance industry, which can be a significant competitive advantage for them.

        We offer our products through a network of independent agents, regional and national brokers, wholesalers and MGAs. We selectively appoint our distribution partners based upon their knowledge of our target markets, and our specialized capabilities as well as their geographic profiles. We sometimes pay higher commissions and incur higher expenses to align with these distribution partners, however, we believe that they add value to our business with their specialized knowledge. These agents, brokers, MGAs and wholesalers are sometimes able to offer substantial discounts in pricing through their other markets as compared to our insurance products. If our distribution partners experience increased competition from other writers of insurance, we in turn could be adversely affected if they are unable to maintain our competitive position in their respective markets. If we are unable to maintain our competitive position throughout soft and hard market cycles, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

        The current pricing market is highly competitive and soft, however, we have maintained underwriting and pricing discipline. Any significant decrease in the rates we can charge for property and casualty insurance would adversely affect our results. We expect to continue to experience the effects of this cyclicality which, during down periods, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

         We may suffer losses from unfavorable outcomes from litigation and other legal proceedings.

        In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to litigation and other legal proceedings as part of the claims process, the outcomes of which are uncertain. We maintain reserves for these legal proceedings as part of our loss and LAE reserves. We do not believe that the ultimate outcome of such matters will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition. However, adverse outcomes are possible and could negatively impact our financial condition. In addition, we also maintain separate reserves for legal proceedings that are not related to the claims process. In the event of an unfavorable outcome in one or more legal matters, our ultimate liability may be in excess of amounts we have currently reserved for and such additional amounts may be material to our results of operations and financial condition. Except as disclosed in "Legal Proceedings" and Note 16 to our financial statements, as of December 31, 2011, we had no material pending non-claims legal proceedings.

        As industry practices and legal, judicial, social and other conditions change, unexpected and unintended issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. These issues may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition by either extending coverage beyond our underwriting intent or by increasing the number and size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not

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become apparent until some time after we have issued insurance contracts that are affected by the changes.

         Our profitability may be adversely impacted by inflation, legislative actions and judicial decisions.

        The effects of inflation could cause claim costs to rise in the future. In addition, legislative actions and judicial decisions continue to broaden liability and policy definitions and to increase the severity of claim payments, such as described above with respect to A&E claims. To the extent inflation and these legislative actions and judicial decisions cause claim costs to increase above reserves established for these claims, we will be required to increase our loss and LAE reserves with a corresponding reduction in our net income in the period in which the deficiency is identified.

         Regulation may restrict our ability to operate.

        The insurance industry is subject to extensive regulation under U.S. and state laws. Governmental agencies have broad administrative power to regulate many aspects of the insurance business, which include premium rates, marketing practices, advertising, policy forms and capital adequacy. These governmental agencies are concerned primarily with the protection of policyholders rather than shareholders. Insurance laws and regulations impose restrictions on the amount and type of investments, prescribe solvency standards that must be met and maintained and require the maintenance of reserves. Premium rate regulation may make it difficult for us to increase premiums to adequately reflect the cost of providing insurance coverage to our policyholders. In our underwriting, we rely heavily upon information gathered from third parties such as credit report agencies and other data aggregators. The use of this information is also highly regulated and any changes to the current regulatory structure could materially affect how we underwrite and price premiums.

        Changes in federal or state laws and regulations may restrict our ability to operate and/or have an adverse effect upon the profitability of our business within a given jurisdiction, and could have an effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010, created the FIO within the Treasury Department. The FIO is responsible for gathering information and monitoring the insurance industry to identify gaps in the regulation of insurers that could contribute to a systemic crisis in the insurance industry or U.S. financial system. The FIO also has the authority to recommend changes to state insurance laws and regulations. The FIO is expected to issue its first report on modernizing and improving insurance regulation in 2012. We cannot predict whether the FIO will recommend any such changes, whether any states will adopt any such changes, or what effect such changes may have on our insurance operations. As another example, it is possible that the NAIC could adopt part or all of Solvency II including minimum capital requirements that could be in excess of our current minimum capital requirements established by state regulations. If the NAIC adopted Solvency II including additional capital requirements, our business and results of operations could be materially impacted.

         Mandated market mechanisms may require us to underwrite policies with a higher risk of loss, and assessments and other surcharges for guaranty funds and second-injury funds may reduce our profitability.

        We are often required to participate directly or indirectly in mandatory shared market mechanisms as a condition of our licenses to do business in certain states. These markets, which are commonly referred to as "residual" or "involuntary" markets, generally consist of risks considered to be undesirable from a standard or routine underwriting perspective. Underwriting performance related to assigned risk plans, a form of mandated market mechanism, is typically adverse and, as a result, we are required to underwrite some policies with a higher risk of loss than we would normally accept. Our participation in assigned risk plans may result in greater liabilities than we anticipate and could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

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        In addition, virtually all states require insurers licensed to do business in their state to bear a portion of the loss suffered by some insureds as the result of impaired or insolvent insurance companies. These guaranty funds are funded by assessments that are expected to increase in the future as a result of recent insolvencies. Many states also have laws that established second-injury funds to provide compensation to injured employees for aggravation of a prior condition or injury which are funded by either assessments based on paid losses or premium surcharge mechanisms. The effect of these assessments and surcharges or changes in them could reduce our profitability in any given period or limit our ability to grow our business.

         We depend on our key personnel to manage our business effectively and they may be difficult to replace.

        Our performance substantially depends on the efforts and abilities of our management team and other executive officers and key employees, including our experienced teams of specialty underwriters. Furthermore, much of our competitive advantage is based on the expertise, experience and know-how of our key management personnel and underwriting teams. We do not have fixed term employment agreements with any of our key employees nor key man life insurance, and the loss of one or more of these key employees could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our success also depends on the ability to hire and retain additional key personnel including underwriting teams. Difficulty in hiring or retaining key personnel could adversely affect our results of operation and financial condition.

         We may not be successful in developing our specialty businesses which could cause us to underestimate reserves, incur additional expenses, and fail to fully realize our investments in these businesses, which could materially affect our business and results of operations.

        We have recently entered into new specialty business lines, including energy and excess and surplus lines. We intend to continue to look for appropriate opportunities to diversify our business portfolio by adding new specialty lines of insurance coverage. We also intend to continue to grow our existing specialty business lines. Due to our limited history in new business lines, there could be limited financial information available to us to help us estimate sufficient loss reserves for these lines and to help evaluate whether we will be able to successfully develop these lines or the likely ultimate losses and expenses associated with these lines. Also, we may have less experience than some of our competitors in managing certain of these business lines. We may also incur expenses related to these business lines that may be difficult to manage in addition to our existing expense structure. Accordingly, we may fail to fully realize the benefits and profits from some or all of our new specialty lines businesses relative to the resources that we invest in them. Also, these business lines may fail to perform at the levels we anticipate. Although we have a conservative approach to adding new businesses to our portfolio, including stringent management oversight of, among other areas, underwriting, product and pricing development, and financial performance, there is no assurance that we will be able to realize profitability from some or all of these new specialty businesses, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

         We may need additional capital in the future, which may not be available to us or available to us on favorable terms. Raising additional capital could dilute your ownership in our company and may cause the market price of our common shares to fall.

        We may need to raise additional funds through public or private debt or equity financings in order to:

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        Any additional capital raised through the sale of equity will dilute your ownership percentage in our company and may decrease the market price of our common shares. Furthermore, the securities may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior or otherwise superior to those of our common shares. Any additional financing we may need may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all.

         We may be unable to adequately maintain our systems and safeguard the security of our data which may adversely impact our ability to operate our business and cause reputational harm and financial loss.

        Our business and operations rely on secure and efficient processing, storage and transmission of customer and company data, including personally identifiable information such as a name together with a social security number, bank account number, driver's license number, passport number or birthday (PII). Our ability to effectively operate our business depends upon our ability and the ability of certain third parties including vendors and business partners to access our computer systems to perform necessary business functions such as providing quotes and product pricing, billing and processing premiums, administering claims, and reporting our financial results. Our business and operations also depend upon our ability to safeguard PII and other confidential and proprietary information belonging to us, our employees, our policyholders and our business partners as well as Tower's policyholders as a result of the TSA entered into in connection with the Personal Lines Transaction. Our systems may be vulnerable to unauthorized access and hackers, computer viruses, and other scenarios in which our data may be vulnerable to a breach. Specifically, we could be exposed to data breach risk from lost or stolen laptops, other portable media or misdirected mailings containing PII.

        Data incidents could result in reputational harm to us, which could affect our business and results of operations. Nearly every state has enacted data breach laws and regulations that require, among other things, notification to affected persons and state regulatory agencies of a data breach that involves PII. Some U.S. state and federal laws also require us to implement measures to safeguard PII. For example, new Massachusetts regulations require our employees to encrypt information stored on laptops and other portable devices and transmitted through electronic media, and take reasonable steps to verify that our third-party vendors utilize security procedures to protect PII.

        We have taken a number of steps to mitigate our risk. We have a Data Privacy Committee and a Chief Information Security Officer. We have implemented policies, procedures, training and education of employees, as well as technology solutions to safeguard our information. Although we have taken measures to safeguard our information and that of policyholders and other third parties, and we continually monitor the security of our systems and information, we could be exposed to data loss. As a result, our ability to conduct our business may be affected, and impact our results of operations, financial condition and reputation.

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Risks Relating to Our Relationship with White Mountains

         Control of us by White Mountains and the holding of White Mountains shares by some of our directors and officers may result in conflicts of interest.

        White Mountains beneficially owns all of our Class B common shares, representing 96.9% of the voting power of our voting securities and 75.5% of our total equity as of December 31, 2011. As long as White Mountains owns our common shares representing more than 50% of the voting power of our outstanding voting securities, White Mountains will generally be able to determine the outcome of all corporate actions requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors. Furthermore, we are relying on the "controlled company" exemption under the rules of the New York Stock Exchange, and are therefore not required to have a majority of independent directors on our Board. Of the ten directors that we have on our Board, six are current or former employees, directors or officers of White Mountains. White Mountains also has control over the adoption or amendment of provisions in our memorandum of association or bye-laws and the approval of amalgamations, mergers, and other significant corporate transactions. Furthermore, White Mountains will continue to be able to exercise this control as long as their economic equity ownership in us is at least 20%. These factors also may delay or prevent a change in the management or voting control of us.

        Also, at some time in the future, White Mountains may sell all or a portion of its ownership interest in us or may make a tax-free distribution to its shareholders of all or a portion of that interest.

        Questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between us and White Mountains in a number of areas relating to our past and ongoing relationships. Certain of our directors and executive officers may own substantial amounts of White Mountains stock and may also be directors or officers of White Mountains from time to time. Their ownership of White Mountains stock and these other relationships could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when these individuals are faced with decisions that could have different implications for us and White Mountains. These potential conflicts could arise, for example, over matters such as the desirability of an acquisition opportunity, employee retention or recruiting, or our dividend policy.

         White Mountains may compete with us and the involvement of those individuals who are directors and officers of White Mountains and directors of ours in resolving matters relating to such competition will not constitute a breach of fiduciary duty to us.

        Our bye-laws provide that White Mountains will have no obligation to refrain from:

        Because White Mountains may currently or in the future engage in the same activities in which we engage, we may be in direct competition with White Mountains. While White Mountains has indicated to us that its current expectation is to manage its activities such that opportunities to acquire specialty businesses will be pursued through OneBeacon, White Mountains is not legally obligated to do so and could in the future manage its activities in a different way. Due to the resources of White Mountains, including financial resources, name recognition and knowledge of our strengths, weaknesses and business practices, White Mountains could have a competitive advantage over us should it decide to engage in the type of business we conduct, which may have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition. The corporate opportunity policy included in our bye-laws addresses potential conflicts of interest between us, on the one hand, and White Mountains and its officers and directors who are also our directors, on the other hand. These provisions are designed to resolve conflicts between us and White Mountains. Under our bye-laws, it is not a breach of fiduciary duty on the part of any of our officers and directors by reason of their participation in any of the above described activities.

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         Transitional and other arrangements with White Mountains may not be on arm's length terms.

        In connection with the initial public offering, we entered into certain contractual arrangements with White Mountains and its affiliates. These agreements were made in the context of a parent-subsidiary relationship. For example, some of our investments are managed pursuant to an investment management agreement on a discretionary basis by a registered investment advisor which is owned by White Mountains. We have a multi-year investment management contract with this advisor. While we are satisfied with the terms of such arrangement, we cannot confirm that such terms are as favorable to us as they might have been had we contracted with an independent advisor. On the other hand, after the expiration of this agreement, we may not be able to replace these investment services in a timely manner or on terms and conditions, including cost, that are comparable to those we receive from White Mountains, and we may have to pay higher prices for similar services from unaffiliated third parties. For more information on these and other arrangements with White Mountains, see Note 15—"Related Party Disclosures" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

         Refinancing of our Senior Notes may occur on unfavorable terms.

        In connection with the initial public offering, we entered into an agreement with White Mountains pursuant to which White Mountains guarantees the Senior Notes of our subsidiary, OBH, for a specified fee in the amount of 25 basis points per annum on the outstanding principal amount of the Senior Notes. We further agreed that if White Mountains' voting interest in our common shares ceases to represent more than 50% of all our voting securities, we will seek to redeem, exchange or otherwise modify the Senior Notes in order to fully and permanently eliminate White Mountains' obligations under its guarantee. White Mountains and its subsidiaries beneficially own all of our outstanding Class B common shares, representing 96.9% of the voting power of our voting securities. If we have not successfully eliminated the guarantee within 180 days upon notice of the triggering of the voting interest condition, the guarantee fee will increase by 200 basis points. The guarantee fee will further increase by 100 basis points for each subsequent 90 day period thereafter, up to a maximum guarantee fee of 425 basis points, until White Mountains' obligations under its guarantee have been extinguished. This arrangement could require us to devote significant time and expense trying to refinance the Senior Notes and we may not be able to do so on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

        White Mountains has a revolving credit facility which provides for borrowing up to a maximum of $375 million and which contains restrictive financial covenants. The indenture documents governing the Senior Notes provide that if White Mountains as guarantor of the Senior Notes defaults under a credit agreement, mortgage or similar debt agreement with a principal amount greater than $25 million, and such default results in the accelerations of such debt, there is a default under the Senior Notes (commonly referred to as a "cross default"). Such a default would result in a trigger of the cross default provisions in the indenture documents governing the Senior Notes which would permit the holders of 25% or more of the Senior Notes to declare an event of default under the indenture document resulting in a required repayment of the Senior Notes. While we believe that White Mountains is able to meet its obligations under its revolving credit facility, there is the potential that adverse market or other conditions which cannot be controlled could adversely impact White Mountains' ability to meet its obligations as well as our ability to refinance the Senior Notes in the event of a cross default. As of December 31, 2011, the credit facility was undrawn. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financing" and Note 15—"Related Party Disclosures" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

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Risks That Relate to Taxes

         We may become subject to taxes in Bermuda after 2035.

        We have received a standard assurance from the Bermuda Minister of Finance, under Bermuda's Exempted Undertakings Tax Protection Act 1966, that if any legislation is enacted in Bermuda that would impose tax computed on profits or income, or computed on any capital asset, gain or appreciation, or any tax in the nature of estate duty or inheritance tax, then the imposition of any such tax will not be applicable to us or to any of our operations or our shares, debentures or other obligations until March 31, 2035. Given the limited duration of the Minister of Finance's assurance, we cannot be certain that we will not be subject to any Bermuda tax after March 31, 2035. In the event that we become subject to any Bermuda tax after such date, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

         Changes in tax laws or tax treaties may cause more of the income of certain non-U.S. companies in our group to become subject to taxes in the United States.

        The taxable income of our U.S. subsidiaries is subject to U.S. federal, state and local income tax and other taxes. The income of the non-U.S. companies in our group is generally not subject to tax in the United States other than withholding taxes on interest and dividends. Certain of our non-U.S. companies are eligible for the benefits of tax treaties between the United States and other countries. We believe our non-U.S. companies will continue to be eligible for treaty benefits. However, it is possible that factual changes or changes to U.S. tax laws or changes to tax treaties that presently apply to our non-U.S. companies could increase income, or the tax rate on income, subject to tax in the United States. Similarly, changes to the applicable tax laws, treaties or regulations of other countries could subject the income of members of our group to higher rates of tax outside the United States.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        As of the date of this report, we had no unresolved written comments from the Commission staff regarding our periodic or current reports under the Exchange Act.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

        Our headquarters are located at 14 Wesley Street, 5th Floor, Hamilton HM 11, Bermuda. Our U.S. corporate headquarters are located at 601 Carlson Parkway, Minnetonka, Minnesota 55305 and our registered office is located at Clarendon House, 2 Church Street, Hamilton HM 11, Bermuda. We also maintain branch offices in various cities throughout the United States. Our headquarters, U.S. corporate headquarters and our branch offices are leased. We also own a building in Canton, Massachusetts that houses certain corporate functions, as well as field and business operations personnel. In November 2011, we entered into a lease for most of our Canton building. The lease begins in June 2012. We will retain a portion of the building to house certain of our corporate functions, as well as field and business operations personnel. Management considers our office facilities suitable and adequate for our current level of operations.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

        The Company from time to time is involved in various routine legal proceedings. We believe that the outcome of these proceedings, even if determined adversely, would not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

        In June 2011, Deutsche Bank Trust Company Americas, Law Debenture Company of New York and Wilmington Trust Company (collectively referred to as "Plaintiffs"), in their capacity as trustees for certain senior notes issued by the Tribune Company ("Tribune"), filed lawsuits in various jurisdictions

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against numerous defendants including OneBeacon, OBIC-sponsored benefit plans and other affiliates of White Mountains in their capacity as former shareholders of Tribune seeking recovery of the proceeds from the sale of common stock of Tribune in connection with Tribune's leveraged buyout in 2007 (the "LBO"). Tribune filed for bankruptcy in 2008, and the bankruptcy proceedings are currently pending in the Delaware bankruptcy court (the "Bankruptcy Court"). The Bankruptcy Court granted Plaintiffs permission to commence these LBO-related actions. Plaintiffs seek recovery of the proceeds received by the former Tribune shareholders on the basis that Tribune purchased or repurchased its common shares without receiving fair consideration at a time when it was, or as a result of the purchases of shares, was rendered, insolvent. OneBeacon has entered into a joint defense agreement with other affiliates of White Mountains that are defendants in the action. OneBeacon and OBIC-sponsored benefit plans received approximately $32 million for Tribune common stock tendered in connection with the leveraged buyout.

        In December 2011, the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation granted a motion to consolidate all of the lawsuits brought by Plaintiffs for pretrial matters and transfer all such proceedings to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. The consolidated cases are currently stayed pending further order of the Bankruptcy Court.

        In addition, OneBeacon, OBIC-sponsored benefit plans and other affiliates of White Mountains in their capacity as former shareholders of Tribune, along with thousands of former Tribune shareholders, have been named as defendants in an adversary proceeding brought by the Official Committee of Unsecured Creditors of the Tribune Company, on behalf of the Tribune Company, which seeks to avoid the repurchase of shares by Tribune in the LBO on a theory of intentional fraudulent transfer. The adversary proceeding is currently pending in Bankruptcy Court. That case is also stayed pending further order of the Bankruptcy Court.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

        None.

        Executive Officers of the Registrant and its Subsidiaries as of February 28, 2012:

Name
  Age   Position(s)

T. Michael Miller

    53   Director, President and Chief Executive Officer

Paul H. McDonough

    47   Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Ann Marie Andrews

    39   Chief Accounting Officer

Dennis A. Crosby

    53   Executive Vice President, OneBeacon Insurance Company

Jane E. Freedman

    43   Secretary and Associate General Counsel

Bradford W. Rich

    64   Senior Vice President and General Counsel

Paul F. Romano

    52   Executive Vice President, OneBeacon Insurance Company

        Set forth below is information concerning our directors and executive officers as of the date of this filing:

        T. Michael Miller became a director and President and Chief Executive Officer of OneBeacon in August 2006 and was elected President and Chief Executive Officer of OneBeacon LLC in July 2005. He joined OneBeacon LLC as its Chief Operating Officer in April 2005. Prior to joining OneBeacon, Mr. Miller spent 10 years at St. Paul Travelers, most recently as Co-Chief Operating Officer. Prior to joining St. Paul Travelers, Mr. Miller spent 14 years with The Chubb Corporation.

        Paul H. McDonough was elected Chief Financial Officer of OneBeacon in August 2006 and was elected Chief Financial Officer of OneBeacon LLC in December 2005. Mr. McDonough previously served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of BJ's Wholesale Club in 2005, and

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served as Treasurer for St. Paul Travelers, where he worked from 1999-2004. Prior to joining St. Paul Travelers, Mr. McDonough served in various finance roles with Sears and Chevron.

        Ann Marie Andrews became Chief Accounting Officer of OneBeacon in October 2006. Prior thereto, Ms. Andrews served in various financial roles of increasing responsibility at OneBeacon, most recently as controller of OneBeacon LLC. Prior to joining OneBeacon in July 2002, she was with Arthur Andersen LLP.

        Dennis A. Crosby became Executive Vice President of OBIC in November 2010 and Vice President of OBIC in July 2010. Mr. Crosby previously served as President and CEO of ACE Westchester and Chairman of ACE Commercial Risk Services. Prior to his 6 years at ACE, he spent 23 years with St. Paul Travelers in a variety of senior roles including commercial middle market, insurance operations and public sector services.

        Jane E. Freedman became Secretary of OneBeacon in November 2007. She joined OneBeacon in November 2006 as Associate General Counsel. Prior to joining OneBeacon, she served as Senior Counsel at Raytheon Company for 5 years. Prior to joining Raytheon, she was in private practice at Hinckley, Allen & Snyder LLP.

        Bradford W. Rich became Senior Vice President and General Counsel of OneBeacon in September 2007. Mr. Rich previously served as General Counsel of USAA and ACE Ltd. He began his legal career as an assistant staff judge advocate in the United States Air Force, after serving as a staff assistant to the President of the United States.

        Paul F. Romano became Executive Vice President of OBIC in December 2010 and President of OBPI in March 2008. Mr. Romano previously was responsible for underwriting, business development and marketing with Darwin Professional Underwriters. His prior experience includes leading Chubb Specialty's health care underwriting division. Mr. Romano spent the early part of his career with Aetna in the group insurance and managed care business.

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PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR THE COMPANY'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

        The common shares of OneBeacon are listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (Symbol: OB). Our Class A common shares began trading on November 9, 2006. Prior to such date, there was no established public trading market for our common shares. We also have Class B common shares that are not listed for trading, all of which are held by White Mountains. There is no public market for this class of securities. The closing price per share of the Class A common shares on the New York Stock Exchange on February 24, 2012 was $15.21. As of February 24, 2012, the 23,313,719 outstanding Class A common shares were held by 20 holders of record. During 2011, we paid a quarterly dividend of $0.21 per common share and a special dividend of $1.00 per common share in June 2011, or $174.8 million total. On February 22, 2012, the Board declared an ordinary dividend of $0.21 per common share, payable on March 30, 2012 to shareholders of record on March 16, 2012. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Dividend Capacity".

        The following table presents the range of share prices for our Class A common shares for the periods indicated, and the quarterly dividends declared per share:

 
  Three months ended,  
 
  March 31,   June 30,   September 30,   December 31,  

2011

                         

Common share price:

                         

High

  $ 15.43   $ 15.00   $ 14.15   $ 15.91  

Low

  $ 12.80   $ 12.63   $ 12.37   $ 13.19  

Dividends declared

  $ 0.21   $ 1.21   $ 0.21   $ 0.21  

2010

                         

Common share price:

                         

High

  $ 17.25   $ 17.44   $ 16.26   $ 16.03  

Low

  $ 12.81   $ 14.02   $ 13.05   $ 13.54  

Dividends declared

  $ 0.21   $ 0.21   $ 2.71   $ 0.21  

        We were acquired by White Mountains from Aviva in 2001. White Mountains is a holding company whose businesses provide property and casualty insurance, reinsurance and certain other products. During the fourth quarter of 2006, White Mountains sold 27.6 million or 27.6% of our Class A common shares in an initial public offering. Prior to the initial public offering, we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of White Mountains. As of December 31, 2011, White Mountains owned 75.5% of our common shares.

        For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see "Item 12—Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters."

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

        On August 22, 2007, the Board authorized us to repurchase up to $200.0 million of our Class A common shares from time to time, subject to market conditions. Shares may be repurchased on the open market or through privately negotiated transactions. This program does not have a stated expiration date. During the year ended December 31, 2011, no shares were repurchased. During the year ended December 31, 2010, 0.7 million of our Class A common shares under this program were repurchased for $10.5 million and retired. During the year ended December 31, 2009, no shares were

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repurchased. As of December 31, 2011, 5.6 million Class A common shares under this program were repurchased for $112.3 million and retired.

Stock Performance Graph

        The following chart compares the total return on a cumulative basis of $100 invested in our Class A common shares on November 9, 2006, the date our shares commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange, to the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index and the Standard & Poor's Property and Casualty Insurance Index. The following chart includes reinvestment of dividends.


Comparison of Five Year Cumulative Total Return

GRAPHIC

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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

        The following tables set forth our selected consolidated financial information for the dates indicated. We have derived the selected consolidated financial information presented below as of and for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007 from our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation.

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009   2008   2007  
 
  (in millions, except per share amounts)
 

Summary Income Statement Data:

                               

Net written premiums

  $ 1,062.9   $ 1,159.0   $ 1,817.8   $ 1,843.8   $ 1,733.2  
                       

Revenues

                               

Earned premiums

  $ 1,015.5   $ 1,403.9   $ 1,858.8   $ 1,756.9   $ 1,709.0  

Net investment income

    71.4     96.6     125.5     164.4     208.5  

Net realized and unrealized investment gains (losses)(1)

    10.6     74.6     248.6     (763.6 )   173.7  

Net other (expenses) revenues

    (10.7 )   9.6     23.1     3.5     9.4  
                       

Total revenues

    1,086.8     1,584.7     2,256.0     1,161.2     2,100.6  
                       

Expenses

                               

Loss and LAE

    580.9     858.2     1,005.3     1,028.7     994.6  

Policy acquisition expenses and other underwriting expenses

    392.3     544.7     684.8     613.6     586.1  

General and administrative expenses

    9.8     13.0     13.1     15.6     6.1  

Interest expense(2)

    20.5     29.6     39.7     78.3     110.6  

Accretion of fair value adjustment to loss and LAE reserves(3)

            5.4     12.0     16.0  
                       

Total expenses

    1,003.5     1,445.5     1,748.3     1,748.2     1,713.4  
                       

Pre-tax income (loss) from continuing operations

    83.3     139.2     507.7     (587.0 )   387.2  

Income tax (expense) benefit

    (2.1 )   (12.4 )   (130.6 )   214.8     (142.7 )
                       

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

    81.2     126.8     377.1     (372.2 )   244.5  

Loss (income) from discontinued operations, net of tax

    (5.9 )   (6.9 )   (33.0 )   (8.8 )   9.8  

Loss from sale of discontinued operations, net of tax

    (19.2 )                
                       

Net income (loss) including noncontrolling interests

    56.1     119.9     344.1     (381.0 )   254.3  

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (1.0 )   (1.6 )   (2.1 )   (1.7 )   (3.7 )
                       

Net income (loss) attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders

    55.1     118.3     342.0     (382.7 )   250.6  

Change in other comprehensive income and loss items(1)

    (11.2 )   6.5     18.8     (25.5 )   (5.8 )
                       

Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders

  $ 43.9   $ 124.8   $ 360.8   $ (408.2 ) $ 244.8  
                       

Basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders:

                               

Net income (loss) from continuing operations per share

  $ 0.86   $ 1.34   $ 3.97   $ (3.88 ) $ 2.45  

Loss (income) from discontinued operations, net of tax, per share

    (0.06 )   (0.07 )   (0.35 )   (0.09 )   0.10  

Loss from sale of discontinued operations, net of tax, per share

    (0.20 )                

Net income (loss) attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders per share

    0.58     1.25     3.60     (3.99 )   2.51  

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding(4)

    94.8     94.8     95.1     95.9     99.8  

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  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009   2008   2007  
 
  (in millions)
 

Selected Ratios (Based on GAAP Income Statement Data):

                               

Consolidated

                               

Loss and LAE ratio(5)

    57.2 %   61.1 %   54.1 %   58.6 %   58.2 %

Expense ratio(6)

    38.6     38.8     36.8     34.9     34.3  
                       

Combined ratio(7)

    95.8 %   99.9 %   90.9 %   93.5 %   92.5 %

Specialty Insurance Operations

                               

Loss and LAE ratio(5)

    54.2 %   55.1 %   43.9 %   47.6 %   34.7 %

Expense ratio(6)

    37.9     38.4     38.7     36.4     32.8  
                       

Combined ratio(8)

    92.1 %   93.5 %   82.6 %   84.0 %   67.5 %

Other Insurance Operations(9)

                               

Loss and LAE ratio(5)

    n/m     75.0 %   64.0 %   66.3 %   71.6 %

Expense ratio(6)

    n/m     39.7     35.0     33.9     35.9  
                       

Combined ratio(10)

    n/m     114.7 %   99.0 %   100.2 %   107.5 %

Summary Balance Sheet Data:

                               

Total cash and investments

  $ 2,762.5   $ 3,299.6   $ 4,087.6   $ 3,864.5   $ 5,218.9  

Total assets

    5,821.6     6,166.7     7,532.0     7,940.8     9,520.2  

Loss and LAE reserves(3)

    3,358.6     3,295.5     3,934.8     4,294.0     4,480.3  

Unearned premiums

    528.0     627.5     1,018.3     1,088.2     1,005.9  

Debt

    269.7     419.6     620.5     731.9     757.7  

Preferred stock subject to mandatory redemption(11)

                    278.4  

OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

    1,099.8     1,229.0     1,429.0     1,155.1     1,906.5  

OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity and noncontrolling interests

    1,113.9     1,248.9     1,448.1     1,172.3     1,927.8  

(1)
Effective January 1, 2008, we adopted the fair value option, subsequently codified within Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 825, which allows companies the election to report financial assets and liabilities at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in revenues. We adopted ASC 825 for our available-for-sale securities and our investments in hedge funds, private equity funds and our investment in a community reinvestment vehicle. Subsequent to adoption, we report changes in fair value in revenues. Accordingly, total revenues and pre-tax income (loss) from continuing operations for 2011, 2010, 2009 and 2008, which included $(46.2) million, $(7.3) million, $269.1 million and $444.7 million, respectively, of change in net unrealized investment gains and losses, are not directly comparable to such measures for the 2007 period presented above.

(2)
In accordance with ASC 480, we present all accretion and dividends on preferred stock subject to mandatory redemption as interest expense.

(3)
In connection with purchase accounting for the OneBeacon Acquisition, we were required to adjust to fair value our loss and LAE reserves and the related reinsurance recoverables by $646.9 million and $346.9 million, respectively, on our balance sheet as of June 1, 2001. This net charge to loss and LAE reserves of $300.0 million is being accreted through an income statement charge ratably with and over the period the claims are settled. As of both December 31, 2011 and 2010, the outstanding pre-tax unaccreted adjustment was $0.

(4)
Weighted average common shares outstanding includes the impact of unvested restricted shares as well as the impact of repurchases of Class A common shares made under the Company's share repurchase authorization.

(5)
The loss and LAE ratio is calculated by dividing loss and LAE, which includes long-term compensation expense, by earned premiums.

(6)
The expense ratio is calculated by dividing policy acquisition expenses and other underwriting expenses, which includes long-term compensation expense, by earned premiums.

(7)
The combined ratio is the sum of the loss and LAE ratio and the expense ratio, including long-term incentive compensation expense. Long-term incentive compensation expense increased our consolidated combined ratio by 0.7 points, 1.8 points, 2.2 points, 0.7 points and 1.6 points for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

(8)
Includes our long-term incentive compensation expense. Long-term incentive compensation expense increased our combined ratio for the Specialty Insurance Operations segment by 0.6 points, 1.7 points, 2.5 points, 1.0 points and 2.1 points for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

(9)
As Other Insurance Operations consists of business in run-off, GAAP ratios are not meaningful for the 2011 period.

(10)
Includes our long-term incentive compensation expense. Long-term incentive compensation expense increased our combined ratio for the Other Insurance Operations segment by 1.8 points, 1.9 points, 0.4 points and 1.3 points for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.

(11)
The Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Preferred Stock was redeemed in May 2008 for $300.0 million, its redemption value.

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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        The following discussion contains "forward-looking statements." Statements that are not historical in nature are forward-looking statements. OneBeacon cannot promise that its expectations in such forward-looking statements will turn out to be correct. OneBeacon's actual results could be materially different from and worse than its expectations. See "Forward-Looking Statements" on page 99 for specific important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements.

Book Value Per Share

        The following table presents our book value per share.

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  (in millions except per share
amounts)

 

Numerator

                   

OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

  $ 1,099.8   $ 1,229.0   $ 1,429.0  

Denominator

                   

Common shares outstanding(1)

    95.1     94.4     95.1  
               

Book value per share

  $ 11.56   $ 13.02   $ 15.03  
               

Dividends paid per share

  $ 1.84   $ 3.34   $ 0.84  

(1)
Common shares outstanding includes the impact of unvested restricted shares and also the impact of repurchases of Class A common shares made under the Company's share repurchase authorization.

        We ended the full year 2011 with a book value per share of $11.56, reflecting an increase of 3.1%, including dividends (a quarterly dividend of $0.21 per share and a special dividend of $1.00 per share paid in June 2011), on an internal rate of return basis for the year ended December 31, 2011. The increase includes a 3.0% total return on invested assets for the year ended December 31, 2011. Results for the year ended December 31, 2011 were adversely impacted by investment results in the pension plan, the debt tender completed in April, the shares of restricted stock granted in May, as well as the estimated loss on sale of AutoOne. Results for AutoOne and the estimated loss on sale are reported as discontinued operations. We reported comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders of $43.9 in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $124.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. Our 2011 results include a $19.2 million after tax ($29.6 million pre-tax) estimated loss on the sale of AutoOne, as well as a $7.8 million after tax ($12.0 million pre-tax) loss related to the purchase of a portion of the Senior Notes. Change in other comprehensive income and loss items in the year ended December 31, 2011 includes the impact of an $11.2 million after tax decrease in our pension plans primarily related to a decrease in the over-funded status of our qualified pension plan driven by a decline in value of the investment assets in the plan.

        Our GAAP combined ratio was 95.8% for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to 99.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease in the combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2011 was primarily due to lower current accident year non-catastrophe losses as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010. The year ended December 31, 2010 included a number of non-catastrophe large losses, particularly in the exited businesses, specifically the non-specialty commercial lines business which has been in run-off following the sale of the renewal

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rights to the business in December 2009, and the traditional personal lines business which was sold in July 2010. Loss reserve development for the year ended December 31, 2011 had no impact on the combined ratio as favorable loss reserve development of $29.6 million, or 2.9 points, in Specialty Insurance Operations was essentially offset by adverse loss reserve development of $26.7 million, or 2.6 points, in Other Insurance Operations resulting from a detailed review of run-off expenses. In contrast, the year ended December 31, 2010 included $57.1 million, or 4.1 points, of favorable loss reserve development. Current accident year catastrophe losses were slightly lower with 3.6 points for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to 3.9 points in the prior year. The year ended December 31, 2011 included $36.9 million of current accident year catastrophe losses primarily related to hurricane Irene, tornados in the southeastern and midwestern United States as well as storms and freezing weather in the northeastern and southwestern United States, compared to $55.3 million of current accident year catastrophe losses in the year ended December 31, 2010. Total net written premiums decreased 8.3% in the year ended December 31, 2011 to $1,062.9 million, compared to $1,159.0 million for the prior year, primarily due to the Personal Lines Transaction.

        We ended the full year 2010 with a book value per share of $13.02, reflecting an increase of 9.4%, including dividends (a quarterly dividend of $0.21 per share and a special dividend of $2.50 per share paid in September 2010), on an internal rate of return basis, for the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase includes a 4.9% total return on invested assets for the year ended December 31, 2010. We reported comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders of $124.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders of $360.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Our 2010 results include $6.6 million after tax ($10.2 million pre-tax) in additional consideration for aggregate premium renewals exceeding $200 million as part of the Commercial Lines Transaction, as well as a $24.6 million after tax ($8.5 million pre-tax) gain on sale related to the Personal Lines Transaction. These were partially offset by a $7.0 million after tax ($10.8 million pre-tax) loss related to the purchase of a portion of the Senior Notes. Change in other comprehensive income and loss items in the year ended December 31, 2010 includes the impact of a $5.8 million after tax increase in our pension plans primarily related to an increase in the over-funded status of our qualified pension plan driven by investment results.

        Our GAAP combined ratio was 99.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 90.9% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in the combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2010 was primarily due to higher current accident year catastrophe losses and a number of large losses experienced earlier in the year, particularly in the exited businesses. The year ended December 31, 2010 included $55.3 million of current accident year catastrophe losses primarily related to the March Northeast U.S. storms and an increased frequency of catastrophe losses relative to the prior year period, compared to $23.8 million of current accident year catastrophe losses in the year ended December 31, 2009. Total net written premiums decreased 36.2% in the year ended December 31, 2010 to $1,159.0 million, compared to $1,817.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in net written premiums was due primarily to the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction.

Overview

        We are an exempted Bermuda limited liability company. Our operating companies are U.S.-based property and casualty insurance writers, most of which operate in a multi-company pool. Pooling arrangements permit the participating companies to rely on the capacity of the entire pool's capital and surplus rather than just on its own capital and surplus. Under such arrangements, the members share substantially all insurance business that is written, and allocate the combined premiums, losses and expenses. We provide a wide range of specialty insurance products and services through independent agencies, regional and national brokers, wholesalers and managing general agencies. In the year ended December 31, 2011, our net written premiums totaled $1.1 billion and we had total assets of approximately $5.8 billion and total OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity of $1.1 billion at December 31, 2011.

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        Our reportable segments are Specialty Insurance Operations, Other Insurance Operations and Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations.

        Specialty Insurance Operations.    Our Specialty Insurance Operations segment is comprised of twelve underwriting units that are aggregated into three major underwriting units: MGA Business, which includes those businesses that are distributed through MGAs, Specialty Industries, which includes those businesses that are targeted to specific industries, and Specialty Products, which includes those businesses that offer targeted products. See "Business—Specialty Insurance Operations".

        Other Insurance Operations.    Our Other Insurance Operations segment includes the results of the non-specialty commercial lines business and the traditional personal lines business, other run-off business and certain purchase accounting adjustments relating to the OneBeacon Acquisition. See "Business—Other Insurance Operations".

        Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations.    Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations includes the investing and financing activities for OneBeacon on a consolidated basis, and certain other activities conducted through our top holding company, OneBeacon Insurance Group, Ltd., and our intermediate subsidiary holding companies which include OneBeacon U.S. Enterprises Holdings, Inc. and OneBeacon U.S. Holdings, Inc., both U.S.- domiciled companies, as well as various intermediate holding companies domiciled in the United States, Gibraltar, Luxembourg and Bermuda.

        Historically, we have offered a range of specialty, commercial and personal products and services, however, in the wake of recent transactions we are now focused exclusively on specialty business. In addition, the transactions freed up significant capital, increased our financial flexibility and substantially reduced our catastrophe exposure.

        AutoOne.    On August 30, 2011, we entered into the AutoOne Purchase Agreement to sell AutoOne to Interboro. AutoOne offers products and services to assigned risk markets primarily in New York and New Jersey. AutoOne had been included within the Other Insurance Operations segment, however, as a result of entering into the AutoOne Purchase Agreement, AutoOne has been presented as discontinued operations in the statements of operations with the prior periods reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Pursuant to the terms of the AutoOne Purchase Agreement, at closing OneBeacon will transfer to Interboro all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of AOIC and AOSIC, through which substantially all of the AutoOne business is written on a direct basis. At closing, OneBeacon will also transfer the assets, liabilities (including loss reserves and unearned premiums) and capital of the business as well as substantially all of the AutoOne infrastructure including systems and office space as well as certain staff. The AutoOne Transaction also includes the execution of a reinsurance agreement with certain subsidiaries of the Company pursuant to which OneBeacon will cede, on a 100% quota share basis, AutoOne business not directly written by AOIC and AOSIC. The AutoOne Transaction, which was subject to regulatory approvals, closed in February 2012. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we recorded an after tax net charge of approximately $19.2 million reflecting the estimated loss on sale of the AutoOne business.

        Personal lines.    On July 1, 2010, we completed the sale of our traditional personal lines business to Tower. The Personal Lines Transaction included two insurance companies through which the majority of the traditional personal lines business was written on a direct basis, two attorneys-in-fact managing the reciprocals that wrote the traditional personal lines business in New York and New Jersey, the surplus notes issued by the New York and New Jersey reciprocals and the remaining renewal rights to certain other traditional personal lines insurance policies. In addition, the Personal Lines Transaction included the execution of reinsurance agreements with certain subsidiaries of the Company pursuant to

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which we cede, on a 100% quota share basis, traditional personal lines business not directly written by companies included in the sale and assume, on a 100% quota share basis, certain specialty lines business written directly by York. OneBeacon and Tower also entered into a TSA, pursuant to which we provide certain services to Tower during the three-year term of the TSA. Tower reimburses us for all of our expenses incurred to provide these services. Reimbursement for these services is netted against the expense incurred.

        As consideration, based upon the carrying value of the traditional personal lines business as of July 1, 2010, we received $166.6 million. The consideration represented the statutory surplus in the reciprocals (as consideration for surplus notes issued by the reciprocals), the combined GAAP equity in the insurance companies and attorneys-in-fact being sold, plus $32.5 million. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we recorded a total after tax net gain on the sale of $24.6 million that is comprised of $8.5 million included in net other revenues and $16.1 million included in the tax provision. During the second quarter of 2011, OneBeacon and Tower reached agreement on post-closing adjustments resulting in no material change to the $24.6 million after tax net gain on sale that OneBeacon had recorded during 2010.

        Commercial lines.    On December 3, 2009, we sold the renewal rights to our non-specialty commercial lines business to The Hanover. The transaction included small commercial accounts and the non-specialty portion of the middle-market business, beginning with January 1, 2010 effective dates. As consideration for the Commercial Lines Transaction, we received $23.2 million and recorded a pre-tax gain of the same amount, reflected in net other revenues in the year ended December 31, 2009. We continue to manage claims from business written prior to the Commercial Lines Transaction. Through June 30, 2010, we also managed claims from business fronted by OneBeacon and reinsured to The Hanover. We continue to provide claims system access and first notice of loss service to The Hanover. The Hanover reimburses us for our expenses incurred to provide the claims administration services. During the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, we recorded $0.8 million and $10.2 million, respectively, in additional consideration for aggregate premium renewals exceeding $200 million.

        We account for insurance policies that we write in accordance with ASC 944. Premiums written are recognized as revenues and are earned ratably over the term of the related policy. Unearned premiums represent the portion of premiums written that are applicable to future insurance coverage provided by policies.

        Deferred acquisition costs represent commissions, premium taxes, brokerage expenses and other costs that are directly attributable to and vary with the production of business. These costs are deferred and amortized over the applicable premium recognition period. Deferred acquisition costs are limited to the amount expected to be recovered from future earned premiums and anticipated investment income. This limitation is referred to as a premium deficiency. A premium deficiency is recognized if the sum of expected loss and LAE, unamortized acquisition costs, and maintenance costs exceeds related unearned premiums and anticipated investment income. A premium deficiency is recognized by charging any unamortized acquisition costs to expense to the extent required in order to eliminate the deficiency. On January 1, 2012, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2010-26, Accounting for Costs Associated with Acquiring or Renewing Insurance Contracts, codified within ASC 944. ASU 2010-26 is effective for interim periods and annual fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011. We have elected to adopt ASU 2010-26 on a prospective basis. Under the new guidance, deferrable acquisition costs are limited to costs related to successful contract acquisitions. Acquisition costs that are not eligible for deferral are to be charged to expense in the period incurred. See Note 1—"Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

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        Loss and LAE are charged against income as incurred. Unpaid loss and LAE reserves are based on estimates (generally determined by claims adjusters, legal counsel and actuarial staff) of the ultimate costs of settling claims, including the effects of inflation and other societal and economic factors. Unpaid loss and LAE reserves represent management's best estimate of ultimate loss and LAE, net of estimated salvage and subrogation recoveries, if applicable. Such estimates are reviewed and updated on a quarterly basis and any adjustments resulting therefrom are reflected in current operations. The process of estimating loss and LAE involves a considerable degree of judgment by management and the ultimate amount of expense to be incurred could be considerably greater than or less than the amounts currently reflected in the consolidated financial statements.

        Our insurance subsidiaries enter into ceded reinsurance contracts from time to time to protect their businesses from losses due to concentration of risk and to limit losses arising from catastrophic events. The majority of such reinsurance contracts are executed through excess-of-loss treaties and catastrophe contracts under which a third-party reinsurer indemnifies our insurance subsidiaries for a specified part or all of certain types of losses over stipulated amounts arising from any one occurrence or event. We also have entered into quota share treaties with reinsurers under which all risks meeting prescribed criteria are ceded to third-party reinsurers on a pro rata basis. The amount of each risk ceded by us is subject to maximum limits that vary by line of business and type of coverage. Amounts related to reinsurance contracts are recorded in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with ASC 944, as applicable.

        Amounts recoverable from reinsurers are estimated in a manner consistent with the claim liability associated with the reinsured policies. Our ability to collect our reinsurance recoverables is subject to the solvency of the reinsurers with whom we have entered into reinsurance contracts. We are selective in regard to our reinsurers, principally placing reinsurance with those reinsurers with strong financial condition, industry ratings and underwriting ability. Management monitors the financial condition and ratings of our reinsurers on an ongoing basis.

        Reinsurance premiums, commissions, expense reimbursements and reserves related to reinsured business are accounted for on a basis consistent with those used in accounting for the original policies issued and the terms of the reinsurance contracts. Premiums ceded to other companies are reported as a reduction of premiums written. Expense allowances received in connection with reinsurance ceded have been accounted for as a reduction of the related policy acquisition costs.

        Our executive compensation policies are designed with one goal in mind, namely, the maximization of shareholder value over long periods of time. We believe that this goal is best pursued by utilizing a pay-for-performance program that serves to attract and retain superior executive talent and provide management with performance-based incentives to maximize shareholder value. Through this compensation program, we seek to maximize shareholder value by aligning closely the financial interests of management with those of our shareholders.

        Compensation of our senior management team, including our named executive officers, consists primarily of three components: base salary, annual bonus and long-term incentive awards. Base salaries have been capped at $500,000. Annual bonus targets for all senior executives are 50%, with the exception of the Chief Executive Officer at 75%, of base salary. Long-term incentives for senior executives have in the past been comprised of performance shares and/or performance units. Under

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these instruments, payouts are explicitly tied to White Mountains' or OneBeacon's performance over a three-year period and are highly variable (the actual number of shares/units paid out at the end of the cycle will range from 0% to 200% of target depending on performance against established goals). See Note 9—"Employee Share-Based Incentive Compensation Plans" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements. Additionally, in recognition that the 2007-2009 and 2008-2010 performance share cycles, as described below, were projected to payout at or close to zero, creating a significant retention risk over the next years the OneBeacon Compensation Committee of the Board (the Compensation Committee) in February 2009 approved cash retention awards for the executive officers and certain members of senior management. The Compensation Committee also approved a pool of money for senior management to make retention awards to certain other key personnel.

        Our share-based compensation plans consist of performance shares which are typically settled in cash, stock options which were granted in connection with our initial public offering, restricted stock units and restricted shares. We account for these share-based compensation plans in accordance with ASC 718. Compensation cost is measured and recognized based on the current market price of the underlying common shares and on the number of shares that are expected to vest.

        OneBeacon revised the design of its long-term incentive plans from prior plan designs principally to use OneBeacon performance units instead of White Mountains performance shares, with performance targets primarily tied to OneBeacon's adjusted combined ratio. Each unit was initially valued at $100 and compounded in value over the performance period by the underwriting return on capital achieved by OneBeacon. In the case of certain senior officers, a portion of their long-term incentive compensation in these periods had been denominated in White Mountains performance shares. As a result of the shift from White Mountains performance shares to OneBeacon performance units, OneBeacon's incentive compensation expense associated with these performance cycles is no longer significantly impacted by changes in the market price of White Mountains common shares. Prior to February 2007, the value of OneBeacon's performance shares was based upon the market price of an underlying White Mountains common share (WTM Performance Shares). In February 2007, the Compensation Committee canceled all of OneBeacon's WTM Performance Shares outstanding and replaced the awards with a two-year 2007-2008 performance cycle, whose value was based upon the market price of an underlying OneBeacon common share. In the 2007-2008 performance cycle, a total of 137,400 performance shares were earned based upon a performance factor of 1.4%.

        In February 2007, the Compensation Committee approved the principal performance share goal of the OneBeacon Long-Term Incentive Plan to be growth in its intrinsic business value per share (GIBVPS). GIBVPS was defined by the Compensation Committee with respect to each award cycle. For the 2007-2009 performance cycle, the Compensation Committee defined GIBVPS to be a weighted measure comprised of growth in adjusted book value per share, underwriting return on equity and growth in our price per common share. In the 2007-2009 performance cycle, a total of 682,344 performance shares were earned based upon a performance factor of 14.2%.

        In February 2008, the Compensation Committee defined GIBVPS for the 2008-2010 performance cycle to be a weighted measure comprised of growth in adjusted book value per share and underwriting return on equity. In the 2008-2010 performance cycle, a total of 929,849 performance shares were earned based upon a performance factor of 68.5%.

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        In February 2009, 2010 and 2011, the Compensation Committee granted performance shares with a goal of growth in book value per share for the 2009-2011 performance cycle, the 2010-2012 performance cycle and the 2011-2013 performance cycle, respectively. As of December 31, 2011, 256,751 performance shares, 244,248 performance shares and 151,563 performance shares, respectively, were outstanding with respect to the 2009-2011, 2010-2012 and 2011-2013 performance cycles.

        As a result of the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction, payments were made to certain former employees of OneBeacon prior to the end of the performance cycle on a pro rata basis. Performance shares earned and paid for the 2008-2010, 2009-2011 and 2010-2012 performance cycles were based upon a performance factor of 100%.

        In connection with OneBeacon's initial public offering, options were issued to certain key employees as a one-time incentive. The options did not include a mechanism to reflect the contribution to total return from the regular quarterly dividend. As a result, in February 2008, the Compensation Committee approved a grant of restricted stock units as a supplement to the initial public offering stock grant. The RSUs were scheduled to vest one-third on each of November 9, 2009, 2010 and 2011 subject to growth in adjusted book value per share from January 1, 2008 through the end of the calendar year immediately following the applicable vesting date. Consistent with the terms of the RSU plan, all three tranches of RSUs vested and were deferred into our deferred compensation plan and will be paid out in May 2012 in cash or shares at the discretion of the Compensation Committee.

        On May 25, 2011, OneBeacon issued 630,000 shares of restricted stock to its CEO that vest in equal installments on February 22, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Concurrently with the grant of the restricted stock, 35,000 performance shares issued to the CEO for the 2011-2013 performance share cycle were forfeited. Performance share awards to the CEO for the next five years will be reduced by a similar number of shares. At December 31, 2011, the Company had 630,000 unvested restricted shares outstanding.

        In connection with purchase accounting for the OneBeacon Acquisition, we were required to adjust to fair value our loss and LAE reserves and the related reinsurance recoverables by $646.9 million and $346.9 million, respectively, on our balance sheet as of June 1, 2001. This net change to loss and LAE reserves of $300.0 million is being accreted through an income statement charge ratably with and over the period the claims are settled. Accordingly, we recognized $5.4 million of such charges, recorded as loss and LAE, in the year ended December 31, 2009. As of both December 31, 2011 and 2010, the outstanding pre-tax unaccreted adjustment was $0.

        The income tax expense related to pre-tax income from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 represented net effective tax rates of 2.5%, 8.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2011 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate, and recognition of a deferred tax asset for a higher tax

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basis and deconsolidation of the companies sold as part of the Personal Lines Transaction, partially offset by an increase in the valuation allowance for insurance reciprocals. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2009 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate, and the settlement of federal income tax audits for 2003 and 2004. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, the effective tax rate on non-U.S. income was 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, and the effective rate on U.S. income was 19.1%, 19.5% and 30.5%, respectively.

Results of Operations

Review of Consolidated Results

        A summary of our consolidated financial results for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 is as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Net written premiums

  $ 1,062.9   $ 1,159.0   $ 1,817.8  
               

Revenues

                   

Earned premiums

  $ 1,015.5   $ 1,403.9   $ 1,858.8  

Net investment income

    71.4     96.6     125.5  

Net realized and unrealized investment gains

    10.6     74.6     248.6  

Net other (expenses) revenues

    (10.7 )   9.6     23.1  
               

Total revenues

    1,086.8     1,584.7     2,256.0  
               

Expenses

                   

Loss and LAE

    580.9     858.2     1,005.3  

Policy acquisition expenses

    219.0     311.6     376.3  

Other underwriting expenses

    173.3     233.1     308.5  

General and administrative expenses

    9.8     13.0     13.1  

Interest expense on debt

    20.5     29.6     39.7  

Accretion of fair value adjustment to loss and LAE reserves

            5.4  
               

Total expenses

    1,003.5     1,445.5     1,748.3  
               

Pre-tax income from continuing operations

    83.3     139.2     507.7  

Income tax expense

    (2.1 )   (12.4 )   (130.6 )
               

Net income from continuing operations

    81.2     126.8     377.1  

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax

    (5.9 )   (6.9 )   (33.0 )

Loss from sale of discontinued operations, net of tax

    (19.2 )        
               

Net income including noncontrolling interests

    56.1     119.9     344.1  

Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (1.0 )   (1.6 )   (2.1 )
               

Net income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders

    55.1     118.3     342.0  

Change in foreign currency translation

        0.7     (0.1 )

Change in other comprehensive income and loss items

    (11.2 )   5.8     18.9  
               

Comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders

  $ 43.9   $ 124.8   $ 360.8  
               

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        The following table provides ratios of our consolidated underwriting results for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  

Ratios:(1)(2)(3)(4)

                   

Loss and LAE

    57.2 %   61.1 %   54.1 %

Expense

    38.6     38.8     36.8  
               

Total GAAP combined

    95.8 %   99.9 %   90.9 %
               

(1)
Certain amounts in the prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation.

(2)
Includes our long-term incentive compensation expense. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, long-term incentive compensation expense increased our total GAAP combined ratio by 0.7 points, 1.8 points and 2.2 points, respectively.

(3)
Includes loss and LAE relating to catastrophes. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, total calendar year incurred loss and LAE relating to catastrophes increased our loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 4.0 points, 3.2 points and 0.8 points, respectively, including development on prior accident year catastrophes which increased (decreased) our loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 0.4 points, (0.7) points and (0.5) points, respectively.

(4)
Prior accident year development, including development on catastrophes, for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 decreased our loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 0.3 points, 4.1 points and 6.3 points, respectively.

        Our comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders was $43.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $124.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. Change in other comprehensive income and loss items in the year ended December 31, 2011 included the impact of an $11.2 million after tax decrease in our pension plans primarily related to a decrease in the over-funded status of our qualified pension plan driven by a decline in the value of the investment results, as compared to a $5.8 million after tax increase in our pension plans in the prior year also driven by investment assets in the plan. Net income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders was $55.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $118.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010.

        Our total revenues decreased 31.4% to $1,086.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $1,584.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease was mainly due to a 27.7% decrease in earned premiums primarily due to the Personal Lines Transaction and Commercial Lines Transaction. Net realized and unrealized investment gains decreased 85.8% to $10.6 million, compared to $74.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. Net investment income decreased 26.1% to $71.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily due to an 18.5% decline in average invested assets, including invested assets of $111.8 million reclassified to assets held for sale as part of the AutoOne Transaction. The decline in average invested assets since December 31, 2010 was driven by the Personal Lines Transaction, return of capital to shareholders, repurchases of debt and the Commercial Lines Transaction, including the impact of claim payments related to non-specialty commercial lines reserves. Net other (expenses) revenues decreased $20.3 million to $(10.7) million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $9.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The year ended December 31, 2011 included a $12.0 million loss related to the purchase of a portion

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of our Senior Notes. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the $8.5 million net gain on the Personal Lines Transaction and $10.2 million of additional consideration related to the Commercial Lines Transaction, both described above, partially offset by a $10.8 million loss related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes.

        Our total expenses decreased 30.6% in the year ended December 31, 2011 to $1,003.5 million, compared to $1,445.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. Loss and LAE decreased 32.3% to $580.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, reflective of the decrease in our book of business resulting from the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction, partially offset by a strengthening of our run-off reserves, principally for unallocated loss adjustment expenses, the impact of which was mitigated by favorable loss reserve development in our specialty businesses. Policy acquisition expenses decreased 29.7% to $219.0 million and other underwriting expenses decreased 25.7% to $173.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, reflective of the shrink in our book of business resulting from the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction. Interest expense decreased 30.7% to $20.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, reflective of actions taken to reduce outstanding debt. General and administrative expenses decreased 24.6% to $9.8 million.

        Our income tax expense related to pre-tax income from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010 represented net effective tax rates of 2.5% and 8.9%, respectively. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2011 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate, and recognition of a deferred tax asset for a higher tax basis and deconsolidation of the companies sold as part of the Personal Lines Transaction, partially offset by an increase in the valuation allowance for insurance reciprocals. For the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, the effective tax rate on non-U.S. income was 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and the effective rate on U.S. income was 19.1% and 19.5%, respectively. See Note 7—"Income Taxes" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

        Our GAAP combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2011 decreased to 95.8% from 99.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The loss and LAE ratio decreased by 3.9 points to 57.2% while the expense ratio decreased by 0.2 points to 38.6%. The decrease in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to a decrease in current accident year non-catastrophe losses. We experienced a number of large losses in our property and inland marine business within Specialty Insurance Operations and in our non-specialty commercial lines business within Other Insurance Operations during the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease in current accident year losses was partially offset by a decrease in favorable loss reserve development. The year ended December 31, 2011 included $2.9 million or 0.3 points of favorable loss reserve development, as compared to $57.1 million or 4.1 points of favorable loss reserve development in the year ended December 31, 2010. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we completed a detailed review of run-off expenses and, as a result, increased our run-off loss and LAE reserves. For the year ended December 31, 2011, we recognized $26.7 million of adverse loss reserve development, which includes the impact of the expense reserve strengthening, in Other Insurance Operations. During the year ended December 31, 2011, the favorable loss reserve development in Specialty Insurance Operations was primarily related to lower than expected severity on non-catastrophe losses related to professional liability lines, multiple peril liability lines and other general liability lines. Current accident year catastrophe losses were 0.3 points lower than the prior year. The year ended December 31, 2011 included $36.9 million or 3.6 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, as compared to $55.3 million or 3.9 points of current accident year catastrophe losses in the year ended December 31, 2010. The slight decrease in the expense ratio reflects lower

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acquisition costs, primarily related to the Commercial Lines Transaction and Personal Lines Transaction, essentially offset by other underwriting expenses that have not decreased proportionately with the reduction in earned premium associated with the exited businesses.

        Our comprehensive income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders was $124.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $360.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Change in other comprehensive income and loss items in the year ended December 31, 2010 included the impact of a $5.8 million after tax increase in our pension plans primarily related to an increase in the over-funded status of our qualified pension plan driven by investment results, as compared to a $12.1 million after tax increase in our pension plans in the prior year also driven by investment results. Change in other comprehensive income and loss items in the year ended December 31, 2009 also included a $7.4 million pre-tax ($4.8 million after tax) increase resulting from the settlement of our interest rate swap relating to the mortgage note. The impact was offset by a $7.4 million realized loss related to the settlement of the interest rate swap reflected in net other revenues. Net income attributable to OneBeacon's common shareholders was $118.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $342.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2009.

        Our total revenues decreased 29.8% to $1,584.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $2,256.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease was mainly due to a 24.5% decrease in earned premiums primarily due to the sale of our personal lines and our non-specialty commercial lines. Net realized and unrealized investment gains decreased 70.0% to $74.6 million, compared to $248.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Net investment income decreased 23.0% to $96.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, primarily due to lower fixed maturity investment yields, a reduction in invested assets as a result of the Personal Lines Transaction, repurchases of our Senior Notes, payment of the special dividend, and an increased allocation to lower yielding short-term investments during the first six months of 2010 in preparation for the closing of the Personal Lines Transaction. These were partially offset by a $1.7 million inflation adjustment related to our inflation indexed treasury securities as compared to a $(1.1) million inflation adjustment related to these securities for the year ended December 31, 2009. Net other revenues decreased 58.4% to $9.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $23.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the $8.5 million net gain on the Personal Lines Transaction and $10.2 million of additional consideration related to the Commercial Lines Transaction, partially offset by a $10.8 million loss related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes. The year ended December 31, 2009 included pre-tax proceeds of $23.2 million from the Commercial Lines Transaction and a $5.4 million gain related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes, partially offset by a $7.4 million realized loss related to the settlement of the interest rate swap.

        Our total expenses decreased 17.3% in the year ended December 31, 2010 to $1,445.5 million, compared to $1,748.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Loss and LAE decreased 14.6% to $858.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, reflective of the shrink in our book of business resulting from the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction, partially offset by higher current accident year catastrophe losses and a number of large losses experienced earlier in the year, particularly in businesses we have exited. Current accident year catastrophe losses were $55.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $23.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Other underwriting expenses decreased 24.4% to $233.1 million and policy acquisition expenses decreased 17.2% to $311.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, reflecting the change in our book of business resulting from the Commercial Lines Transaction and the Personal Lines Transaction. Interest expense decreased by 25.4% to $29.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, reflective of actions taken to reduce outstanding debt. General and administrative expenses were flat as compared to the prior year.

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        Our income tax expense related to pre-tax income from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 represented net effective tax rates of 8.9% and 25.7%, respectively. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2010 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate, and recognition of a deferred tax asset for a higher tax basis and deconsolidation of the companies sold as part of the Personal Lines Transaction, partially offset by an increase in the valuation allowance for insurance reciprocals. The effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2009 was lower than the U.S. statutory rate of 35% primarily due to income generated in jurisdictions other than the United States, principally representing interest income taxed in a jurisdiction with a lower effective tax rate, and the settlement of federal income tax audits for 2003 and 2004. For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, the effective tax rate on non-U.S. income was 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively, and the effective rate on U.S. income was 19.5% and 30.5%, respectively. See Note 7—"Income Taxes" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

        Our GAAP combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased to 99.9% from 90.9% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The loss and LAE ratio increased by 7.0 points to 61.1% while the expense ratio increased by 2.0 points to 38.8%. The increase in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to an increase in current accident year catastrophe and non-catastrophe losses. The year ended December 31, 2010 included $55.3 million or 3.9 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, as compared to $23.8 million or 1.3 points of current accident year catastrophe losses in the year ended December 31, 2009. We also experienced a number of large losses in our property and inland marine business within Specialty Insurance Operations and in our non-specialty commercial lines business within Other Insurance Operations. The year ended December 31, 2010 included $57.1 million or 4.1 points of favorable loss reserve development, as compared to $116.7 million or 6.3 points of favorable loss reserve development in the year ended December 31, 2009. The favorable loss reserve development was primarily related to lower than expected severity on non-catastrophe losses related to professional liability lines, multiple peril liability lines and other general liability lines. The favorable development also included a $7.5 million release of commercial catastrophe reserves associated with storms occurring in 2004 and 2005. The expense ratio increased primarily due to higher acquisition costs in our specialty businesses as compared to the exited businesses and other underwriting expenses that have not decreased proportionately with the reduction in earned premium associated with the exited businesses.

Summary of Operations By Segment

        Specialty Insurance Operations is comprised of twelve underwriting units that are aggregated into three major underwriting units: MGA Business, Specialty Industries and Specialty Products. Other Insurance Operations includes the non-specialty commercial lines business and traditional personal lines business, other run-off business and certain purchase accounting adjustments relating to the OneBeacon Acquisition. Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations includes the investing and financing activities for OneBeacon on a consolidated basis, and certain other activities conducted through our holding companies. Prior periods have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation. Our segment information is presented in Note 12—"Segment Information" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

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Specialty Insurance Operations

        Financial results for our Specialty Insurance Operations segment for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Net written premiums

  $ 1,062.7   $ 988.0   $ 946.2  
               

Earned premiums

  $ 1,012.1   $ 979.2   $ 917.9  

Loss and LAE

    (548.4 )   (539.6 )   (403.0 )

Policy acquisition expenses

    (221.0 )   (212.7 )   (204.1 )

Other underwriting expenses

    (162.2 )   (163.6 )   (151.4 )
               

Total underwriting income

    80.5     63.3     159.4  
               

Net other revenues

    0.6     2.7     3.5  

General and administrative expenses

    (1.7 )   (2.3 )   (2.6 )
               

Pre-tax income from continuing operations

  $ 79.4   $ 63.7   $ 160.3  
               

        The following table provides net written premiums, earned premiums and underwriting ratios by major underwriting unit and Specialty Insurance Operations in total for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009:

 
   
   
   
   
   
   
($ in millions)
  MGA
Business
  Specialty
Industries
  Specialty
Products
 


  Specialty
Insurance
Operations
 


Year ended December 31, 2011

                               

Net written premiums

  $ 288.4   $ 376.9   $ 397.4       $ 1,062.7    

Earned premiums

    276.6     349.3     386.2         1,012.1    

Ratios:(1)(2)(3)

                               

Loss and LAE

    48.0 %   51.7 %   60.8 %       54.2 %  

Expense

    42.4     38.2     34.3         37.9    
                         

Total GAAP combined

    90.4 %   89.9 %   95.1 %       92.1 %  
                         

Year ended December 31, 2010

                               

Net written premiums

  $ 269.2   $ 317.6   $ 401.2       $ 988.0    

Earned premiums

    266.0     302.2     411.0         979.2    

Ratios:(1)(2)(3)

                               

Loss and LAE

    49.8 %   54.0 %   59.2 %       55.1 %  

Expense

    41.4     41.8     33.9         38.4    
                         

Total GAAP combined

    91.2 %   95.8 %   93.1 %       93.5 %  
                         

Year ended December 31, 2009

                               

Net written premiums

  $ 256.7   $ 292.3   $ 397.2       $ 946.2    

Earned premiums

    236.9     288.5     392.5         917.9    

Ratios:(1)(2)(3)

                               

Loss and LAE

    49.7 %   48.0 %   37.3 %       43.9 %  

Expense

    42.1     41.5     34.8         38.7    
                         

Total GAAP combined

    91.8 %   89.5 %   72.1 %       82.6 %  
                         

(1)
Includes our long-term incentive compensation expense. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, long-term incentive compensation expense increased

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(2)
Includes loss and LAE relating to catastrophes. For the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, total calendar year incurred loss and LAE relating to catastrophes increased our Specialty Insurance Operations loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 3.8 points, 1.5 points and 1.0 points, respectively, including development on prior accident year catastrophes which increased (decreased) our Specialty Insurance Operations loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 0.2 points, (0.7) points and (0.6) points, respectively.

(3)
Prior accident year development, including development on catastrophes, for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 decreased our Specialty Insurance Operations loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 2.9 points, 2.8 points and 9.2 points, respectively.

        Overview.    We reported a GAAP combined ratio of 92.1% for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to 93.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease in our combined ratio was primarily due to lower current accident year non-catastrophe losses and other underwriting expenses, partially offset by higher catastrophe losses.

        MGA Business.    Net written premiums for MGA Business increased 7.1% to $288.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 from $269.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase compared to the prior year period was primarily due to a $13.3 million increase in net written premiums from our collector cars and boats business driven by growth in new business as well as retention and a $5.0 million increase in net written premiums from OBE related to growth in new business. Net written premiums for Dewar were essentially flat as compared to the prior year period.

        The MGA Business combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2011 decreased slightly to 90.4% from 91.2% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The loss and LAE ratio decreased by 1.8 points to 48.0% while the expense ratio increased by 1.0 point to 42.4%. The decrease in the loss and LAE ratio is primarily due to a 2.1 point decrease in current accident year non-catastrophe losses primarily related to OBE and Dewar, compared with the year ended December 31, 2010. The year ended December 31, 2011 also reflects the impact of 0.4 points of adverse loss reserve development, compared to 0.6 points of adverse loss reserve development primarily related to OBE in the prior year period. These were partially offset by a 0.5 point increase in catastrophe losses. The year ended December 31, 2011 included 1.8 points of current accident year catastrophe losses primarily related to hurricane Irene and tornados in the southeastern and Midwestern United States which impacted our collector cars and boats business as well as OBE, as compared to 1.3 points in the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase in the expense ratio was driven by higher other underwriting expenses, partially offset by a decrease in policy acquisition expenses related to OBE.

        Specialty Industries.    Net written premiums for Specialty Industries increased 18.7% to $376.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 from $317.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The increase compared to the prior year was due to a $19.9 million increase in net written premiums from OBA, a $19.0 million increase in net written premiums from OBTI, a $17.5 million increase in net written premiums from OBGR and a $7.8 million increase in net written premiums from OBEG. These increases were primarily due to new business as well as solid retention levels despite competition in the marketplace. These increases were partially offset by a $4.9 million decrease in net written premiums from IMU which reflects the competitive marketplace.

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        The Specialty Industries combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2011 decreased to 89.9% from 95.8% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The loss and LAE ratio decreased by 2.3 points to 51.7% while the expense ratio decreased by 3.6 points to 38.2%. The decrease in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to the impact of favorable loss reserve development. The year ended December 31, 2011 included 5.8 points of favorable loss reserve development primarily related to OBTI and IMU, compared to 0.4 points of adverse loss reserve development primarily related to OBA in the prior year period. This was partially offset by a 3.9 increase in current accident year losses, compared with the year ended December 31, 2010. The year ended December 31, 2011 included 4.4 points of catastrophe losses, primarily related to hurricane Irene, storms and freezing weather in the northeastern and southwestern United States impacting IMU and tornados in the southeastern and Midwestern United States impacting OBTI as well as OBGR and IMU, as compared to 1.3 points of catastrophe losses, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States impacting IMU in the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease in the expense ratio was due to a decrease in other underwriting expenses, as well as a small decrease in policy acquisition expenses primarily related to IMU.

        Specialty Products.    Net written premiums for Specialty Products decreased 0.9% to $397.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 from $401.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease was primarily due to a $5.8 million decrease in net written premiums from OBPI primarily related to the medical excess line and a $4.0 million decrease in net written premiums from PIM reflecting a revised underwriting strategy, partially offset by a $3.5 million increase in net written premiums from OBES which we began writing in 2011 and a $2.5 million increase in net written premiums from OBSP.

        The Specialty Products combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2011 increased to 95.1% from 93.1% for the year ended December 31, 2010. The loss and LAE ratio increased by 1.6 points to 60.8% while the expense ratio increased by 0.4 points to 34.3%. The increase in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to lower favorable loss reserve development as well as higher current accident year catastrophe losses. The year ended December 31, 2011 included 2.7 points of favorable loss reserve development related to professional liability, compared to 7.5 points of favorable loss reserve development related to professional liability in the prior year period. The year ended December 31, 2011 included 4.2 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, primarily related to tornados in the southeastern and Midwestern United States, storms and freezing weather in the northeastern and southwestern United States and hurricane Irene impacting PIM and to a lesser extent within the financial services business of OBPI, compared to 3.3 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States experienced in the first quarter of 2010 and elsewhere in the United States in the second quarter of 2010. The increases were partially offset by a 4.1 point decrease in current accident year non-catastrophe losses, compared with the year ended December 31, 2010. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the impact of a number of large losses experienced at PIM. The increase in the expense ratio was primarily due to an increase in policy acquisition expenses mainly due to OBPI, partially offset by a decrease in other underwriting expenses primarily related to PIM.

        Reinsurance protection.    We purchase reinsurance in order to minimize loss from large risks or catastrophic events. We also purchase individual property reinsurance coverage for certain risks to reduce large loss volatility through property-per-risk excess of loss reinsurance programs and individual risk facultative reinsurance. We also maintain excess of loss casualty reinsurance programs that provide protection for individual risk or catastrophe losses involving workers compensation, general liability, automobile liability, professional liability or umbrella liability. The availability and cost of reinsurance protection is subject to market conditions, which are outside of our control. Limiting our risk of loss through reinsurance arrangements serves to mitigate the impact of large losses; however, the cost of this protection in an individual period may exceed the benefit.

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        For the year ended December 31, 2011, our net combined ratio was higher than our gross combined ratio by 3.5 points, primarily due to the impact of the cost of facultative reinsurance and property reinsurance, and also the cost of catastrophe reinsurance and marine reinsurance. For the year ended December 31, 2010, our net combined ratio was higher than our gross combined ratio by 3.8 points, primarily due to the impact of the cost of catastrophe reinsurance and facultative reinsurance.

        Overview.    We reported a GAAP combined ratio of 93.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 82.6% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase in our combined ratio was primarily due to higher current accident year non-catastrophe losses and lower favorable loss reserve development, as expenses were essentially flat.

        MGA Business.    Net written premiums for MGA Business increased by 4.9% to $269.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 from $256.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase compared to the prior year period was primarily due to an $8.5 million increase in net written premiums from our collector cars and boats business as well as a $4.3 million increase in net written premiums from OBE. Net written premiums for Dewar were essentially flat as compared to the prior year period.

        The MGA Business combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2010 decreased slightly to 91.2% from 91.8% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The loss and LAE ratio increased by 0.1 point to 49.8% while the expense ratio decreased by 0.7 points to 41.4%. The slight increase in the loss and LAE ratio reflects the impact of adverse loss reserve development substantially offset by lower current accident year losses. The year ended December 31, 2010 included 0.6 points of adverse loss reserve development primarily related to OBE, compared to 0.1 point of favorable loss reserve development related to our collector cars and boats business in the prior year period. This was essentially offset by a 0.6 point decrease in current accident year losses primarily related to non-catastrophe losses, compared with the year ended December 31, 2009. The year ended December 31, 2010 included 1.3 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, as compared to 0.9 points in the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease in the expense ratio was driven by lower other underwriting expenses.

        Specialty Industries.    Net written premiums for Specialty Industries increased by 8.7% to $317.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 from $292.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase was due to solid retention levels for many of the businesses and growth in some of our newer businesses. The increase compared to the prior year period was due to a $15.5 million increase in net written premiums from A&H, an $8.3 million increase in net written premiums from OBEG, which began writing business in July 2009, and a $6.2 million increase in net written premiums from OBGR, partially offset by a $4.1 million decrease in net written premiums from IMU and a $0.6 million decrease in net written premiums from OBTI.

        The Specialty Industries combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased to 95.8% from 89.5% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The loss and LAE ratio increased by 6.0 points to 54.0% while the expense ratio increased by 0.3 points to 41.8%. The increase in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to loss reserve development. The year ended December 31, 2010 included 0.4 points of adverse loss reserve development primarily related to A&H, compared to 5.1 points of favorable loss reserve development primarily related to OBTI in the prior year period. Further, the year ended December 31, 2010 included a 0.5 point increase in current accident year losses, compared with the year ended December 31, 2009. The year ended December 31, 2010 included 1.3 points of catastrophe losses, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States experienced in

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the first quarter. The year ended December 31, 2009 included 0.7 points of current accident year catastrophe losses. The expense ratio was essentially flat.

        Specialty Products.    Net written premiums for Specialty Products increased by 1.0% to $401.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 from $397.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase was primarily due to a $20.2 million increase in net written premiums from OBPI, partially offset by a $10.2 million decrease in net written premiums from PIM reflecting a revised underwriting strategy and a $6.0 million decrease in net written premiums from OBSP, reflecting competition in the marketplace.

        The Specialty Products combined ratio for the year ended December 31, 2010 increased to 93.1% from 72.1% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The loss and LAE ratio increased by 21.9 points to 59.2% while the expense ratio decreased by 0.9 points to 33.9%. The increase in the loss and LAE ratio was primarily due to an 11.7 point increase in current accident year losses, compared with the year ended December 31, 2009. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the impact of a number of large losses experienced at PIM. The year ended December 31, 2010 also included 3.3 points of current accident year catastrophe losses, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States experienced in the first quarter and elsewhere in the U.S. in the second quarter. The year ended December 31, 2009 included 2.7 points of current accident year catastrophe losses. Further, the year ended December 31, 2010 included 7.5 points of favorable loss reserve development primarily related to professional liability, compared to 17.7 points of favorable loss reserve development related to professional liability in the prior year period. The decrease in the expense ratio was primarily due to a decrease in policy acquisition expenses partially offset by an increase in other underwriting expenses.

        Reinsurance protection.    For the year ended December 31, 2010, our net combined ratio was higher than our gross combined ratio by 3.8 points, primarily due to the impact of the cost of catastrophe reinsurance and facultative reinsurance. For the year ended December 31, 2009, our net combined ratio was higher than our gross combined ratio by 3.6 points, primarily due to the cost of catastrophe, facultative and property reinsurance.

Other Insurance Operations

        Financial results for our Other Insurance Operations segment for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 were as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Net written premiums

  $ 0.2   $ 171.0   $ 871.6  
               

Earned premiums

  $ 3.4   $ 424.7   $ 940.9  

Loss and LAE

    (32.5 )   (318.6 )   (602.3 )

Policy acquisition expenses

    2.0     (98.9 )   (172.2 )

Other underwriting expenses

    (11.1 )   (69.5 )   (157.1 )
               

Total underwriting (loss) income

    (38.2 )   (62.3 )   9.3  
               

Net other revenues

    1.6     18.7     23.2  

General and administrative expenses

        (0.1 )    

Accretion of fair value adjustment to loss and LAE reserves

            (5.4 )
               

Pre-tax (loss) income from continuing operations

  $ (36.6 ) $ (43.7 ) $ 27.1  
               

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        As Other Insurance Operations consists of business in run-off, GAAP ratios are not meaningful for the 2011 period. The following table provides underwriting ratios for Other Insurance Operations for the year ended December 31, 2009:

 
  Year ended
December 31,
 
 
  2010   2009  

Ratios:(1)(2)(3)

             

Loss and LAE

    75.0 %   64.0 %

Expense

    39.7     35.0  
           

Total GAAP combined

    114.7 %   99.0 %
           

(1)
Includes our long-term incentive compensation expense. For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, long-term incentive compensation expense increased our Other Insurance Operations combined ratio by 1.8 points and 1.9 points, respectively.

(2)
Includes loss and LAE relating to catastrophes. For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, total calendar year incurred loss and LAE relating to catastrophes increased our Other Insurance Operations loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 7.3 points and 0.6 points, respectively, including development on prior accident year catastrophes which decreased our loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 0.7 points and 0.3 points, respectively.

(3)
Prior accident year development, including development on catastrophes, for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009 decreased our Other Insurance Operations loss and LAE and total combined ratios by 6.9 points and 3.4 points, respectively.

        Underwriting results for the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2010 reflect the impact of exiting businesses as a result of the Personal Lines Transaction which closed in July 2010 and the Commercial Lines Transaction. Net written premiums for Other Insurance Operations were $0.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2011 as compared to $171.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. Other Insurance Operations generated an underwriting loss of $38.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to an underwriting loss of $62.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. During the year ended December 31, 2011, we completed a detailed review of run-off expenses and, as a result, increased our run-off loss and LAE reserves. For the year ended December 31, 2011, we recognized $26.7 million of adverse loss reserve development, which includes the impact of the expense reserve strengthening. For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized $29.1 million of favorable loss reserve development principally related to multiple peril liability lines and other general liability lines. The year ended December 31, 2010 included significant catastrophe activity, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States, and higher-than-average levels of large losses in the non-specialty commercial businesses and in the automobile line. The year ended December 31, 2011 included $0.8 million of additional consideration related to the Commercial Lines Transaction. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the $8.5 million net gain on the Personal Lines Transaction and the $10.2 million of additional consideration related to the Commercial Lines Transaction. In furtherance of our strategy to focus on our core specialty lines businesses, we are exploring various strategic alternatives with respect to the business within our Other Insurance Operations segment.

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Asbestos and Environmental Exposures

        As described in "Critical Accounting Estimates", we have a reinsurance contract with NICO for up to $2.5 billion in old A&E claims and certain other exposures. Under the terms of the NICO Cover, NICO receives the economic benefit of reinsurance recoverables from certain of our third party reinsurers in existence at the time the NICO Cover was executed (Third Party Recoverables). As a result, the Third Party Recoverables serve to protect the $2.5 billion limit of NICO coverage for our benefit.

        In September 2011, we completed a study of our legacy A&E exposures based on experience through 2010. The previous study was based on experience through 2007. Reasonable estimates of potential adverse scenarios continue to be within the $2.5 billion reinsurance cover issued by NICO. Based on the results of the study, we increased the point estimate of incurred losses ceded to NICO from $2.2 billion to $2.3 billion, an increase of $121.9 million, net of underlying reinsurance. Due to the NICO Cover, there was no impact to income or equity from the change in the estimate. Approximately $1.4 billion of the estimated $2.3 billion of incurred losses have been paid by NICO through December 31, 2011.

        The ratio of reserves net of Third Party Recoverables for A&E losses at December 31, 2011 to trailing three year average paid loss and allocated LAE (known in the industry as the "survival ratio") is 13.3 years including the remaining available protection under the NICO Cover.

        Our reserves for A&E losses at December 31, 2011 represent management's best estimate of our ultimate liability based on information currently available. However, significant uncertainties, including but not limited to case law developments, medical and clean-up cost increases and industry settlement practices, limit our ability to accurately estimate ultimate liability and we may be subject to A&E losses beyond currently estimated amounts. In addition, we remain liable for risks reinsured in the event that a reinsurer does not honor its obligations under reinsurance contracts. To the extent that actual experience differs from our estimate of incurred A&E losses and Third Party Recoverables, future losses could exceed the $198.3 million of protection remaining under the NICO Cover.

        Underwriting results for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2009 reflect the impact of exiting businesses as a result of completing the Personal Lines Transaction which closed in July 2010 and the Commercial Lines Transaction. Net written premiums for Other Insurance Operations were $171.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to $871.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. Other Insurance Operations generated an underwriting loss of $62.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to underwriting income of $9.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The year ended December 31, 2010 included significant catastrophe activity, primarily related to severe wind and rainstorms in the northeastern United States, and higher-than-average levels of large losses in the non-specialty commercial businesses and in the automobile line. The year ended December 31, 2010 included the $8.5 million net gain on the Personal Lines Transaction and the $10.2 million of additional consideration related to the Commercial Lines Transaction. The year ended December 31, 2009 included pre-tax proceeds of $23.2 million from the Commercial Lines Transaction.

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Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations

        A summary of results from our Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations segment for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 is as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Net investment income

  $ 71.4   $ 96.6   $ 125.5  

Net realized and unrealized investment gains

    10.6     74.6     248.6  

Net other expenses

    (12.9 )   (11.8 )   (3.6 )

General and administrative expenses

    (8.1 )   (10.6 )   (10.5 )

Interest expense on debt

    (20.5 )   (29.6 )   (39.7 )
               

Pre-tax income from continuing operations

  $ 40.5   $ 119.2   $ 320.3  
               

        Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations reported pre-tax income from continuing operations of $40.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $119.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease was primarily related to a decrease in net realized and unrealized investment gains and net investment income. As further described below, net realized and unrealized investment gains decreased to $10.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $74.6 million in the prior year period, and net investment income decreased to $71.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $96.6 million in the prior year period. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Summary of Investment Results". The decrease in interest expense reflects actions taken to reduce outstanding debt. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financing". Further, net other expenses increased mainly due to a $12.0 million loss related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to a $10.8 million loss in the prior year period. General and administrative expenses decreased 23.6% as compared with the prior year period.

        Investing, Financing and Corporate Operations reported pre-tax income from continuing operations of $119.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $320.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease was primarily related to a decrease in net investment income and net realized and unrealized investment gains. As further described below, net realized and unrealized investment gains decreased to $74.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $248.6 million in the prior year period and net investment income decreased to $96.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $125.5 million in the prior year period. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Summary of Investment Results". The decrease in interest expense reflects actions taken to reduce outstanding debt. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Financing". Further, net other expenses increased mainly due to a $10.8 million loss related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared with a $5.4 million gain related to the purchase of a portion of our Senior Notes, partially offset by a $7.4 million realized loss related to the settlement of the interest rate swap in the prior year period. General and administrative expenses were essentially flat as compared with the prior year period.

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Summary of Investment Results

Investment Returns

        A summary of our consolidated pre-tax investment results for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 is as follows:

 
  Year ended December 31,  
 
  2011   2010   2009  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Net investment income

  $ 71.4   $ 96.6   $ 125.5  

Net realized investment gains (losses)

    56.8     81.9     (20.5 )

Change in net unrealized investment gains and losses

    (46.2 )   (7.3 )   269.1  
               

Total GAAP pre-tax investment results

  $ 82.0   $ 171.2   $ 374.1  
               

        Gross investment returns versus typical benchmarks for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 are as follows:

 
  Year ended
December 31,(1)
 
 
  2011   2010   2009  

Fixed maturity investments

    3.7 %   4.4 %   12.3 %

Short-term investments

    0.1         0.5  

Total fixed income

    3.4     3.5     9.8  

Barclays U.S. Intermediate Aggregate Index

    6.0     6.1     6.5  

Common equity securities

    (0.1 )   18.5     (7.4 )

Convertible fixed maturity investments

    (6.2 )   12.4     22.7  

Total common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity investments

    (1.5 )   16.4     10.8  

Other investments

    7.0     6.0     10.8  

Total common equity securities, convertible fixed maturity and other investments

    1.1     13.2     10.8  

S&P 500 Index (total return)

    2.1     15.1     26.5  

Total consolidated portfolio

    3.0 %   4.9 %   9.9 %

(1)
Gross investment returns exclude investment expenses of $6.9 million, $8.9 million and $10.9 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009.

        Our total pre-tax investment results were $82.0 million, a return of 3.0% for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to $171.2 million, a return of 4.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010. Net investment income in the year ended December 31, 2011 was $71.4 million, a decrease of $25.2 million, compared to $96.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The decrease was principally due to lower investment yields, a reduction in invested assets as a result of the Personal Lines Transaction, return of capital to shareholders, repurchases of debt and the Commercial Lines Transaction, including the impact of claim payments related to non-specialty commercial lines reserves. Net realized investment gains were $56.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, a decrease of $25.1 million compared to $81.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2010. The change in net unrealized investment gains and losses was a decrease of $46.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to a decrease of $7.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010.

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        Our fixed income portfolio, which includes fixed maturity and short-term investments, returned 3.4% for the year ended December 31, 2011, underperforming the Barclays U.S. Intermediate Aggregate Index returns of 6.0%. We maintained a high quality fixed maturity portfolio with a relatively short duration of approximately 2.5 years excluding short-term investments and approximately 2.2 years including short-term investments at December 31, 2011 which trailed the longer-duration benchmark as rates declined during 2011.

        Our total common equity securities, convertible fixed maturity and other investments portfolio returned 1.1% for the year ended December 31, 2011, compared to 13.2% for the year ended December 31, 2010. Our total common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity investments portfolio returned (1.5)% and 16.4% for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, or 360 basis points worse and 130 basis points better, respectively, than the S&P 500 Index benchmark. Our total common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity investments portfolio has overweight positions in the gold mining sector compared to the S&P 500 Index and also contains convertible fixed maturity investments whose returns were hurt by rising credit spreads on the fixed maturity component of the instrument. In addition, other investments, which are composed principally of hedge funds and private equities, outperformed the S&P 500 Index by 4.9% for the year ended December 31, 2011 and underperformed by 9.1% for the year ended December 31, 2011.

        Our total pre-tax investment results were $171.2 million, a return of 4.9% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to $374.1 million, a return of 9.9% for the year ended December 31, 2009. Net investment income in the year ended December 31, 2010 was $96.6 million, a decrease of $28.9 million, compared to $125.5 million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The decrease was principally due to lower investment yields, a reduction in invested assets as a result of the Personal Lines Transaction, repurchases of our Senior Notes, payment of the special dividend, and an increased allocation to lower yielding short-term investments during the first six months of 2010 in preparation for the closing of the Personal Lines Transaction. The decrease was partially offset by a $1.7 million inflation adjustment related to our inflation indexed treasury securities for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to a $(1.1) million inflation adjustment related to these securities for the year ended December 31, 2009. Net realized investment gains (losses) were $81.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, an increase of $102.4 million compared to $(20.5) million in the year ended December 31, 2009. The increase was principally due to $56.2 million of realized gains on the sales of fixed maturity securities in the year ended December 31, 2010 mainly in preparation for the close of the Personal Lines Transaction and $31.5 million of realized losses on the sales of common equity investments resulting from the reduction in the size of the equity portfolio in the year ended December 31, 2009. The change in net unrealized investment gains and losses was a decrease of $7.3 million in the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to an increase of $269.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2009.

        Our fixed income portfolio, which includes fixed maturity and short-term investments, returned 3.5% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 9.8% for the year ended December 31, 2009. The fixed maturity portfolio, in particular the corporate bond portfolio, performed well during the year ended December 31, 2009, driven by spread tightening. We recorded $56.2 million in net realized gains

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in the year ended December 31, 2010, mainly due to sales of fixed maturity investments during the first six months of 2010 in preparation of the close of the Personal Lines Transaction. We maintained a high quality fixed maturity portfolio with a relatively short duration of approximately 2.8 years excluding short-term investments and approximately 2.5 years including short-term investments at December 31, 2010. Our fixed maturity portfolio performed consistently with its characteristics and below the Barclays U.S. Intermediate Aggregate Index benchmark for the year ended December 31, 2010.

        Our total common equity securities, convertible fixed maturity and other investments portfolio returned 13.2% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 10.8% for the year ended December 31, 2009. Our total common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity investments portfolio returned 16.4% and 10.8% for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, or 130 basis points better and 1,570 basis points worse, respectively, than the S&P 500 Index benchmark. The S&P 500 rebounded during 2009; as a result of the timing of sales of common equity securities in 2009 in order to reduce our equity exposure discussed previously and given that we were more heavily weighted in convertible fixed maturity investments than in common equity securities, our portfolio underperformed the S&P 500 Index benchmark. We recorded $20.4 million in net realized gains in the year ended December 31, 2010. Our other investments portfolio returned 6.0% for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to 10.8% for the year ended December 31, 2009.

Portfolio Composition

        The following table presents the composition of our investment portfolio as of December 31, 2011 and 2010:

 
  As of December 31,  
 
  2011(2)   2010  
Type of Investment
  $ in millions   % of total   $ in millions   % of total  

Fixed maturity investments

  $ 1,998.0     70.9 % $ 2,415.5     74.0 %

Short-term investments

    320.0     11.3     300.0     9.2  

Common equity securities

    266.5     9.5     285.3     8.7  

Convertible fixed maturity investments

    79.8     2.8     93.8     2.9  

Other investments(1)

    155.1     5.5     171.4     5.2  
                   

Total

  $ 2,819.4     100.0 % $ 3,266.0     100.0 %
                   

(1)
Includes investments such as hedge funds and private equity funds.

(2)
Includes $111.8 million of fixed maturity investments reclassified to assets held for sale in the consolidated balance sheet as part of the AutoOne Transaction.

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        The breakdown of our fixed maturity portfolio, including convertible fixed maturity investments, at December 31, 2011 by credit class, based upon issue credit ratings provided by Standard & Poor's, or if unrated by Standard & Poor's, long-term obligation ratings provided by Moody's, is as follows:

Ratings
  Amortized Cost   % of Total   Carrying value   % of Total  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

U.S. government and agency obligations

  $ 213.6     10.5 % $ 215.4     10.4 %

AAA/Aaa

    75.9     3.7     76.2     3.7  

AA/Aa

    895.5     44.1     908.1     43.7  

A/A

    330.9     16.3     344.2     16.5  

BBB/Baa

    371.2     18.3     392.4     18.9  

Other/not rated

    145.3     7.1     141.5     6.8  
                   

Total

  $ 2,032.4     100.0 % $ 2,077.8     100.0 %
                   

(1)
Includes $111.8 million of fixed maturity investments reclassified to assets held for sale in the consolidated balance sheet as part of the AutoOne Transaction.

        The weighted average duration of our fixed maturity portfolio, including convertible fixed maturity investments, at December 31, 2011 is approximately 2.5 years. The maturity distribution for fixed maturity investments, including convertible fixed maturity investments, held at December 31, 2011 is as follows:

Maturity
  Amortized Cost   Carrying Value  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Due within one year

  $ 107.2   $ 108.9  

Due after one through five years

    739.4     764.4  

Due after five through ten years

    161.4     171.7  

Due after ten years

    17.6     19.2  

Asset-backed securities

    928.5     938.3  

Preferred stocks

    78.3     75.3  
           

Total

  $ 2,032.4   $ 2,077.8  
           

(1)
Includes $111.8 million of fixed maturity investments reclassified to assets held for sale in the consolidated balance sheet as part of the AutoOne Transaction.

Asset-backed Securities

        We purchase commercial and residential mortgage backed securities to maximize our risk adjusted returns in the context of a diversified portfolio. Our non-agency commercial mortgage-backed portfolio (CMBS) is generally short tenor and structurally senior, with more than 20 points of subordination on average for fixed rate CMBS and approximately 50 points of subordination on average for floating rate CMBS as of December 31, 2011. In general, subordination represents the percentage of principal loss on the underlying collateral that would have to occur before the security incurs a loss. These collateral losses, instead, are first absorbed by other securities lower in the capital structure. We believe this structural protection mitigates the risk of loss tied to refinancing challenges facing the commercial real estate market. As of December 31, 2011, on average approximately 2% of the underlying loans were reported as non-performing for all CMBS held by us. We are not an originator of residential mortgage loans and did not hold any residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) categorized as sub-prime as of December 31, 2011. Our investments in hedge funds and private equity funds contain negligible amounts of sub-prime mortgage-backed securities as of December 31, 2011. We consider sub-prime mortgage-backed securities to be those that have underlying loan pools that exhibit weak credit

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characteristics or are issued from dedicated sub-prime shelves or dedicated second-lien shelf registrations (i.e., we consider investments backed primarily by second-liens to be sub-prime risks regardless of credit scores or other metrics).

        There are also mortgage backed securities that we categorize as "non-prime" (also called "Alt A" or "A-") that are backed by collateral that has overall credit quality between prime and sub-prime, as determined based on our review of the characteristics of their underlying mortgage loan pools, such as credit scores and financial ratios. As of December 31, 2011, we held $2.3 million of mortgage-backed securities that were classified as non-prime. Our non-agency residential mortgage-backed portfolio is generally of moderate average life, fixed rate and structurally senior. We do not own any collateralized debt obligations, including residential mortgage-backed collateralized debt obligations.

        The following table summarizes the carrying value of our asset-backed securities as of December 31, 2011 and 2010:

 
  December 31,  
 
  2011   2010  
 
  Fair Value   Level 2   Level 3   Fair Value   Level 2   Level 3  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Mortgage-backed securities:

                                     

Agency:

                                     

GNMA

  $ 631.0   $ 631.0   $   $ 684.7   $ 663.4   $ 21.3  

FNMA

    166.8     166.8         143.0     143.0      

FHLMC

    4.9     4.9         19.0     19.0      
                           

Total agency(1)

    802.7     802.7         846.7     825.4     21.3  

Non-agency:

                                     

Residential

    13.7     11.4     2.3     6.4         6.4  

Commercial

    68.4     68.4         36.3     36.3      
                           

Total Non-agency

    82.1     79.8     2.3     42.7     36.3     6.4  

Total mortgage-backed securities

    884.8     882.5     2.3     889.4     861.7     27.7  

Other asset-backed securities:

                                     

Credit card receivables

    48.2     48.2         97.5     97.5      

Vehicle receivables

    5.3     5.3         130.5     130.5      
                           

Total other asset-backed securities

    53.5     53.5         228.0     228.0      
                           

Total asset-backed securities

  $ 938.3   $ 936.0   $ 2.3   $ 1,117.4   $ 1,089.7   $ 27.7  
                           

(1)
Represents publicly traded mortgage-backed securities which carry the full faith and credit guaranty of the U.S. government (i.e., GNMA) or are guaranteed by a government sponsored entity (i.e., FNMA, FHLMC).

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Non-agency Mortgage-backed Securities

        The security issuance years of our investments in non-agency RMBS and non-agency CMBS securities as of December 31, 2011 are as follows:

 
   
  Security Issuance Year  
 
  Fair Value  
 
  2007   2009   2010   2011  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Non-agency RMBS

  $ 13.7   $ 2.3   $   $ 8.2   $ 3.2  

Non-agency CMBS

    68.4     4.4     3.9         60.1  
                       

Total

  $ 82.1   $ 6.7   $ 3.9   $ 8.2   $ 63.3  
                       

Non-agency Residential Mortgage-backed Securities

        The classification of the underlying collateral quality and the tranche levels of our non-agency RMBS securities are as follows as of December 31, 2011:

 
  Fair Value   Super Senior(1)   Senior(2)   Subordinate(3)  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Prime

  $ 11.4   $   $ 11.4   $  

Non-prime

    2.3     2.3          
                   

Total

  $ 13.7   $ 2.3   $ 11.4   $  
                   

(1)
At issuance, Super Senior were rated AAA by Standard & Poor's or Aaa by Moody's and were senior to other AAA or Aaa bonds.

(2)
At issuance, Senior were rated AAA by Standard & Poor's or Aaa by Moody's and were senior to non-AAA or non-Aaa bonds.

(3)
At issuance, Subordinate were not rated AAA by Standard & Poor's or Aaa by Moody's and were junior to other bonds.

Non-agency Commercial Mortgage-backed Securities

        The amount of fixed and floating rate securities and their tranche levels are as follows as of December 31, 2011:

 
  Fair Value   Super Senior(1)   Senior(2)   Subordinate(3)  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Fixed rate CMBS

  $ 64.0   $ 9.9   $ 54.1   $  

Floating rate CMBS

    4.4     4.4          
                   

Total

  $ 68.4   $ 14.3   $ 54.1   $  
                   

(1)
At issuance, Super Senior were rated AAA by Standard & Poor's, Aaa by Moody's or AAA by Fitch and were senior to other AAA or Aaa bonds.

(2)
At issuance, Senior were rated AAA by Standard & Poor's or Aaa by Moody's and were senior to non-AAA or non-Aaa bonds.

(3)
At issuance, Subordinate were not rated AAA by Standard & Poor's or Aaa by Moody's and were senior to other bonds.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

        Our sources and uses of cash are as follows:

        Holding company level.    The primary sources of cash for OneBeacon Insurance Group, Ltd. and certain of our intermediate holding companies are expected to be distributions and tax sharing payments received from our insurance operating subsidiaries, capital raising activities and net investment income and proceeds from sales and maturities of holding company investments. The primary uses of cash are expected to be common share repurchases, interest payments on our debt obligations, repurchases and retirements of our debt obligations, dividend payments on our common shares, purchases of investments, payments made to tax authorities, contributions to our operating subsidiaries, and holding company operating expenses.

        Operating subsidiary level.    The primary sources of cash for our operating subsidiaries are expected to be premium collections, net investment income, capital raising activities, contributions from our holding companies and proceeds from sales and maturities of investments. The primary uses of cash are expected to be claim payments, policy acquisition costs, interest payments on our debt obligations, repurchases and retirements of our debt obligations, operating expenses, purchases of investments, and distributions and tax sharing payments made to parent holding companies.

        Insurance companies typically collect premiums on policies that they write prior to paying claims made under those policies. During periods of premium growth, insurance companies typically experience positive cash flow from operations, as premium receipts typically exceed claim payments. When this happens, positive cash flow from operations is usually offset by negative cash flow from investing activities, as the positive operating cash flow is used to purchase investments. Conversely, during periods of premium decline, insurance companies typically experience negative cash flow from operations, even during periods in which they report GAAP net income, as the claims that they pay exceed the premiums that they collect. When this happens, negative cash flow from operations is typically offset by positive cash flow from investing activities, as invested assets are sold to fund current claim payments.

        Both internal and external forces influence our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Claim settlements, premium levels and investment returns may be impacted by changing rates of inflation and other economic conditions. In many cases, significant periods of time, ranging up to several years or more, may lapse between the occurrence of an insured loss, the reporting of the loss to us and the settlement of the liability for that loss. The exact timing of the payment of claims and benefits cannot be predicted with certainty. Our operating subsidiaries maintain portfolios of invested assets with varying maturities and a substantial amount of cash and short-term investments to provide adequate liquidity for the payment of claims.

        Management believes that our cash balances, cash flows from operations and cash flows from investments are adequate to meet expected cash requirements for the foreseeable future on both a holding company and operating subsidiary level.

        Under the insurance laws of the states and jurisdictions under which our operating subsidiaries are domiciled, an insurer is restricted with respect to the timing or the amount of dividends it may pay without prior approval by regulatory authorities. Accordingly, there can be no assurance regarding the amount of such dividends that may be paid by such subsidiaries in the future.

        Generally, our regulated insurance operating subsidiaries have the ability to pay dividends during any 12-month period without the prior approval of regulatory authorities in an amount set by formula

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based on the greater of prior year statutory net income or 10% of prior year end statutory surplus, subject to the availability of unassigned funds. Our top tier regulated insurance operating subsidiaries have the ability to pay $103 million of dividends during 2012 without the prior approval of regulatory authorities, subject to the availability of unassigned funds. At December 31, 2011, OneBeacon's top tier regulated insurance operating subsidiaries had $0.7 billion of unassigned funds and statutory surplus of $1.0 billion. At December 31, 2011, we had approximately $200 million of net unrestricted cash, short-term investments and fixed maturity investments and approximately $30 million of common equity securities and convertible fixed maturity investments outside of our regulated insurance operating subsidiaries.

        During the year ended December 31, 2011, our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries distributed $150.0 million of extraordinary dividends to OneBeacon LLC. During the year ended December 31, 2010, our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries distributed $776.0 million of dividends, including $71.0 million of ordinary dividends, $535.0 million of extraordinary dividends and $170.0 million representing return of capital to OneBeacon LLC. During the year ended December 31, 2009, our top tier regulated operating subsidiaries distributed $80.0 million of ordinary dividends to OneBeacon LLC. During the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, our unregulated operating subsidiaries paid $4.3 million, $8.3 million and $11.9 million, respectively, of dividends to their immediate parent.

        During the year ended December 31, 2011, we paid cash dividends totaling $174.8 million, including $79.7 million of regular quarterly cash dividends and $95.1 million of a special dividend. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we paid cash dividends totaling $315.6 million, including $79.5 million of regular quarterly cash dividends and $236.1 million of a special dividend. During the year ended December 31, 2009, we paid cash dividends totaling $79.9 million consisting entirely of regular quarterly cash dividends.

Insurance Float

        Insurance float is an important aspect of our insurance operations. Insurance float represents funds that an insurance company holds for a limited time. In an insurance operation, float arises because premiums are collected before losses are paid. This interval can extend over many years. During that time, the insurer invests the funds. When the premiums that an insurer collects do not cover the losses and expenses it eventually must pay, the result is an underwriting loss, which is considered to be the cost of insurance float. We calculate our insurance float by taking our net invested assets and subtracting our total capital. Although insurance float can be calculated using numbers determined under GAAP, insurance float is not a GAAP concept and, therefore, there is no comparable GAAP measure.

        Insurance float can increase in a number of ways, including through acquisitions of insurance operations, organic growth in existing insurance operations and recognition of losses that do not cause a corresponding reduction in investment assets. Conversely, insurance float can decrease in a number of other ways, including sales of insurance operations, shrinking or run-off of existing insurance operations, the acquisition of operations that do not have substantial investment assets (e.g., an agency) and the recognition of gains that do not cause a corresponding increase in investment assets. We have historically obtained our insurance float through both acquisitions and organic growth. We intend to generate low-cost float over time through a combination of acquisitions and organic growth in our ongoing insurance operations. However, we will seek to increase our insurance float organically only when market conditions allow for an expectation of generating underwriting profits.

        Certain operational leverage metrics can be measured with ratios that are calculated using insurance float. There are many activities that do not change the amount of insurance float at an insurance company but can have a significant impact on the company's operational leverage metrics. For example, investment gains and losses, foreign currency gains and losses, debt issuances and

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repurchases/repayments, common share issuances and repurchases and dividends paid to shareholders are all activities that do not change insurance float but that can meaningfully impact operational leverage metrics.

        The following table illustrates our consolidated insurance float position and four operational leverage ratios based on insurance float and net invested assets as of December 31, 2011 and 2010.

 
  December 31,  
 
  2011   2010  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Total investments

  $ 2,707.6   $ 3,266.0  

Cash

    54.9     33.6  

Cash and investments classified within assets held for sale

    117.3      

Accounts receivable on unsettled investment sales

    0.5     5.4  

Accounts payable on unsettled investment purchases

    (22.7 )   (14.1 )
           

Net invested assets

  $ 2,857.6   $ 3,290.9  

OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

  $ 1,099.8   $ 1,229.0  

Debt

    269.7     419.6  
           

Total capital

  $ 1,369.5   $ 1,648.6  
           

Insurance float

  $ 1,488.1   $ 1,642.3  
           

Insurance float as a multiple of total capital

    1.1x     1.0x  

Net invested assets as a multiple of total capital

    2.1x     2.0x  

Insurance float as a multiple of OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

    1.4x     1.3x  

Net invested assets as a multiple of OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

    2.6x     2.7x  

        Based on December 31, 2011 balances, insurance float is expected to decrease by approximately $117.3 million as a result of the AutoOne Transaction. During the year ended December 31, 2010, insurance float decreased by $412.4 million, primarily due to the Personal Lines Transaction, which reduced insurance float by approximately $390 million.

Financing

        The following table summarizes our debt to capital ratio at December 31, 2011 and 2010:

 
  December 31,  
 
  2011   2010  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Senior Notes, carrying value

  $ 269.7   $ 419.6  

OneBeacon's common shareholders' equity

    1,099.8     1,229.0  
           

Total capital

  $ 1,369.5   $ 1,648.6  
           

Ratio of debt to total capital

    19.7 %   25.5 %
           

(1)
See Note 6—"Debt" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

        We believe that we have the flexibility and capacity to obtain funds externally as needed through debt or equity financing on both a short-term and long-term basis. However, we can provide no assurance that, if needed, we would be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on satisfactory terms, if at all.

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        On March 24, 2011, OBH commenced a cash tender offer for up to $150.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes at a price of $1,045 per $1,000 principal amount. The cash tender offer, which was not subject to the tender of any minimum principal amount of Senior Notes, expired on April 20, 2011. Holders of Senior Notes who tendered on or before April 6, 2011 received an early tender payment of $30 for every $1,000 principal amount of Senior Notes validly tendered. Payment for the Senior Notes included accrued and unpaid interest up to the settlement date. OBH accepted and retired $150.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes for $161.6 million, which resulted in a $12.0 million pre-tax loss, including transaction fees.

        On May 3, 2010, OBH commenced a cash tender offer for up to $200.0 million in aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes at a price of $1,027.50 per $1,000 principal amount. The cash tender offer, which was not subject to the tender of any minimum principal amount of Senior Notes, expired on May 28, 2010. Holders of Senior Notes who tendered on or before May 14, 2010 received an early tender payment of $30 for every $1,000 principal amount of Senior Notes validly tendered. Payment for the Senior Notes included accrued and unpaid interest up to the settlement date. OBH accepted and retired $156.4 million aggregate principal amount of the Senior Notes, of which $155.2 million was tendered by the early tender deadline, for purchase for $165.4 million, which resulted in a $9.6 million pre-tax loss, including transaction fees.

        During the year ended December 31, 2010, OBH repurchased and retired $29.7 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $30.8 million, which resulted in a $1.2 million loss. During the year ended December 31, 2010, OBIC purchased $1.1 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $1.1 million. During the year ended December 31, 2009, OBH repurchased and retired $10.6 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $8.1 million, which resulted in a $2.5 million gain. During the year ended December 31, 2009, OBIC purchased $58.3 million of outstanding Senior Notes for $55.0 million, which resulted in a $2.9 million gain.

        During the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009, we paid $20.4 million, $29.1 million and $37.4 million of interest on the Senior Notes.

        White Mountains provides an irrevocable and unconditional guarantee as to the payment of principal and interest on the Senior Notes. In consideration of this Guarantee, we have agreed to pay a specified fee to White Mountains in the amount of 25 basis points per annum on the outstanding principal amount of the Senior Notes. We have further agreed that if White Mountains' voting interest in us ceases to represent more than 50% of all our voting securities, we are obligated to seek to redeem, exchange or otherwise modify the Senior Notes in order to fully and permanently eliminate White Mountains' obligations under the Guarantee (the Guarantee Elimination). White Mountains has agreed to provide written notice to us when its voting interest in us has been reduced below 50%. We will have 180 days from the receipt of such notification to complete the Guarantee Elimination. If the Guarantee Elimination is not completed within the initial 180-day period, the Guarantee fee shall increase by 200 basis points. The Guarantee fee shall further increase by 100 basis points for each subsequent 90-day period thereafter, up to a maximum Guarantee fee of 425 basis points, until the Guarantee Elimination has been completed.

        The Senior Notes were issued under an indenture which contains restrictive covenants. These covenants, among other things, place certain limitations on the ability of White Mountains, OBH and their respective subsidiaries, which includes us, as a subsidiary of White Mountains, to create liens and enter into sale and leaseback transactions and substantially limit the ability of White Mountains, OBH and their respective subsidiaries, which includes us, to consolidate, merge or transfer their properties and assets. The indenture does not contain any financial ratios or specified levels of net worth or liquidity to which White Mountains or OBH must adhere. At December 31, 2011, White Mountains and OBH were in compliance with all of the covenants under the Senior Notes.

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        The indenture documents provide that, if OneBeacon or White Mountains as guarantor of the Senior Notes defaults under a credit agreement, mortgage or similar debt agreement with a principal amount greater than $25 million, and such default results in the acceleration of such debt, there is a default under the Senior Notes. Such a default would permit the trustees or holders of 25% or more of the Senior Notes to declare an event of default under the indenture documents resulting in a required repayment of the Senior Notes. See Note 15—"Related Party Disclosures" of the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

        In December 2011, OBIC, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, sold the majority of its fixed assets and capitalized software to OB Services, another indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company. The fixed assets and capitalized software were sold at a cost equal to book value with no gain or loss recorded on the sale. Subsequent to purchasing the fixed assets and capitalized software from OBIC, OB Services entered into lease financing arrangements with US Bancorp and Fifth Third whereby OB Services sold its furniture and equipment and its capitalized software, respectively, to US Bancorp and Fifth Third. The assets were sold at a cost equal to net book value. OB Services then leased the fixed assets back from US Bancorp for a lease term of five years and leased the capitalized software back from Fifth Third for a lease term of four years. OB Services received cash proceeds of $23.1 million as a result of entering into the sale-leaseback transactions. At the end of the lease terms, OB Services will have the obligation to purchase the leased assets for a nominal fee, after which all rights, title and interest would transfer to OB Services. In accordance with ASC 840, OBIC recorded the sale of the assets with no gain or loss recognized while OB Services has recorded a capital lease obligation of $23.1 million included within other liabilities and a capital lease asset of $22.9 million included within other assets as of December 31, 2011.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

        Below is a schedule of our material contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2011:

 
  Due in
One Year
or Less
  Due in
Two to Three
Years
  Due in
Four to Five
Years
  Due After
Five
Years
  Total  
 
  ($ in millions)
 

Debt

  $   $ 269.9   $   $   $ 269.9  

Loss and LAE reserves(1)

    704.4     880.5     528.3     1,408.7     3,521.9  

Interest on debt

    15.8     7.9             23.7  

Long-term incentive compensation

    22.6     20.9     3.9     6.2     53.6  

Pension and other benefit plan obligations(2)

    13.6     7.8     7.1     33.2     61.7  

Capital leases

    5.3     10.6     7.2         23.1  

Operating leases

    8.0     9.7     6.0     3.5     27.2  
                       

Total contractual obligations

  $ 769.7   $ 1,207.3   $ 552.5   $ 1,451.6   $ 3,981.1  
                       

(1)
Represents expected future cash outflows resulting from loss and LAE payments. The amounts presented are gross of reinsurance recoverables on unpaid losses of $2,330.8 million and include the discount on our workers compensation loss and LAE reserves of $108.3 million as of December 31, 2011. These balances add back the remaining purchase accounting fair value adjustment of $163.3 million related to the OneBeacon Acquisition as it is a non-cash item.

(2)
Includes expected future cash outflows under our non-qualified, non-contributory, defined benefit pension plan and our 401(k) savings and employee stock ownership plan. Our pension plans were

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Critical Accounting Estimates

        Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations discusses our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The consolidated financial statements presented herein include all adjustments considered necessary by management to fairly present our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

        The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the historical consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period.

        On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to fair value measurements of investments, loss and LAE reserves, reinsurance transactions and purchase accounting. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources.

        Management believes that certain of these estimates are considered critical in that they involve a higher degree of judgment and are subject to a significant degree of variability. The descriptions below summarize the more significant estimates used in the preparation of our historical consolidated financial statements.

1.     Fair Value Considerations

        We measure certain assets at estimated fair value in our consolidated financial statements, with changes therein recognized in current period earnings. In addition, we disclose estimated fair value for certain assets and liabilities measured at historical or amortized cost. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants (an exit price). Fair value measurements are categorized into a hierarchy that distinguishes between inputs based on market data from independent sources (observable inputs) and a reporting entity's internal assumptions based upon the best information available when external market data is limited or unavailable (unobservable inputs). Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities have the highest priority (Level 1), followed by observable inputs other than quoted prices, including prices for similar but not identical assets or liabilities (Level 2) and unobservable inputs, including the reporting entity's estimates of the assumptions that market participants would use, having the lowest priority (Level 3).

        Assets carried at fair value include fixed maturity investments, common equity securities, convertible fixed maturity investments and interests in hedge funds and private equity funds. Valuation of assets measured at fair value require us to make estimates and apply judgment to matters that may carry a significant degree of uncertainty. In determining our estimates of fair value, we use a variety of valuation approaches and inputs. Whenever possible, we estimate fair value using valuation methods that maximize the use of observable prices and other inputs.

        For investments in active markets, we use quoted market prices to determine fair value. In circumstances where quoted market prices are unavailable, we utilize fair value estimates based upon reference to other observable inputs other than quoted prices, including matrix pricing, benchmark interest rates, market comparables, broker quotes and other relevant observable inputs. Where observable inputs are not available, the estimated fair value is based upon internal pricing models using assumptions that include inputs that may not be observable in the marketplace but which reflect our best judgment given the circumstances and consistent with what other market participants would use when pricing such instruments.

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        As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, approximately 93% and 91%, respectively, of the investment portfolio recorded at fair value was priced based upon quoted market prices or other observable inputs. Investments valued using Level 1 inputs include fixed maturity investments, primarily investments in U.S. Treasuries, common equities and short-term investments, which include U.S. Treasury Bills. Investments valued using Level 2 inputs comprise fixed maturity investments including corporate debt, state and other governmental debt, convertible fixed maturity investments and mortgage and asset-backed securities. Fair value estimates for investments that trade infrequently and have few or no observable market prices are classified as Level 3 measurements. Level 3 fair value estimates based upon unobservable inputs include our investments in hedge funds and private equity funds, as well as certain investments in debt and equity securities, including asset-backed securities, where quoted market prices are unavailable.

        We use brokers and outside pricing services to assist in determining fair values. The outside pricing services we use have indicated that they will only provide prices where observable inputs are available. If no observable inputs are available for a security, the pricing services will not provide a price. In those circumstances, we estimate the fair value using industry standard pricing models and observable inputs such as benchmark interest rates, matrix pricing, market comparables, broker quotes, issuer spreads, bids, offers, credit rating prepayment speeds and other relevant inputs.

        Our process to assess the reasonableness of the market prices obtained from the outside pricing sources covers substantially all of our fixed maturity investments and includes, but is not limited to, evaluation of model pricing methodologies, review of the pricing services' quality control processes and procedures on at least an annual basis, comparison of market prices to prices obtained from different independent pricing vendors on at least an annual basis, monthly analytical reviews of certain prices and review of assumptions utilized by the pricing service for selected measurements on an ad hoc basis throughout the year. We also perform back-testing of selected purchases and sales activity to determine whether there are any significant differences between the market price used to value the security prior to purchase or sale and the actual purchase or sale price on at least an annual basis. Prices provided by the pricing services that vary by more than 5% and $1.0 million from the expected price based on the procedures are considered outliers. In circumstances where the results of our review process does not appear to support the market price provided by the pricing services, we challenge the price. During the past year, a few securities fell outside of our variance thresholds, thereby triggering the challenge with the pricing services. If we cannot gain satisfactory evidence to support the challenged price, we rely upon our own pricing methodologies to estimate the fair value of the security in question.

        Other investments, which are primarily comprised of hedge funds and private equity funds for which the fair value option has been elected, are carried at fair value based upon our proportionate interest in the underlying fund's net asset value, which is deemed to approximate fair value. The fair value of our investments in hedge funds and private equity funds has been estimated using net asset value because it reflects the fair value of the funds' underlying investments in accordance with ASC 820. We employ a number of procedures to assess the reasonableness of the fair value measurements, including obtaining and reviewing each fund's audited financial statements and discussing each fund's pricing with the fund's manager. The fair values of our investments in hedge funds and private equity funds have been classified as Level 3 under the fair value hierarchy since the fund managers do not provide sufficient information to independently evaluate the pricing inputs and methods for each underlying investment, and therefore the inputs are considered to be unobservable.

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        In circumstances where the underlying investments are publicly traded, such as the investments made by hedge funds, the fair value of the underlying investments is determined using current market prices. In circumstances where the underlying investments are not publicly traded, such as the investments made by private equity funds, the private equity fund managers have considered the need for a liquidity discount on each of the underlying investments when determining the fund's net asset value in accordance with ASC 820. In circumstances where our portion of a fund's net asset value is deemed to differ from fair value due to illiquidity or other factors associated with our investment in the fund, including counterparty credit risk, the net asset value is adjusted accordingly. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, we did not record a liquidity adjustment to the net asset value related to our investments in hedge funds or private equity funds.

        As of both December 31, 2011 and 2010, other investments reported at fair value represented approximately 5% of the investment portfolio recorded at fair value. Other investments accounted for at fair value as of December 31, 2011 and 2010 were comprised of $53.5 million and $63.4 million, respectively, in hedge funds, $65.7 million and $72.7 million, respectively, in private equity funds and $14.1 million for both periods of an investment in a community reinvestment vehicle. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, OneBeacon held investments in 9 and 10 hedge funds, respectively, and 14 and 15 private equity funds, respectively. The largest investment in a single fund was $13.7 million and $24.6 million, respectively, at December 31, 2011 and 2010. As of December 31, 2011 and 2010, other investments also included $21.8 million and $21.2 million, respectively, of an investment in a tax advantaged federal affordable housing development fund which is accounted for using the equity method.

        The fair value measurements at December 31, 2011 and 2010 for assets recorded in accordance with ASC 825 and any related Level 3 inputs are as follows:

 
  Fair value at
December 31, 2011(1)
  Level 3
Inputs
  Level 3
Percentage
 
 
  ($ in millions)